Inflammation is one of the most important responses of the body against infection or disease, and it protects tissues from injury; however, it causes redness, swelling, pain, fever and loss of function. The aim of this present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of emu oil (Eu) formulated nanofibrous scaffold in HFFF2 fibroblast cells.
Materials and methods
Eu was formulated successfully in nanofibers through the electrospinning method. Besides, the morphological and structural properties of Eu nanofibres were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) was performed to evaluate the HFFF2 fibroblast cells’ viability. Also, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory signaling pathway in treated HFFF2 cells with Eu nanofiber.
Our study showed that the Eu nanofiber increased the viability of fibroblast HFFF2 cells (p < 0.05). Also, the expression of interleukin1 (IL1), IL6 and tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) pro-inflammatory cytokines genes were significantly decreased in treated HFFF2 cells with Eu nanofiber (p < 0.05).
In conclusion, Eu nanofiber scaffold potentially can reduce the inflammation process through downregulation of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokines.
Research funding: None declared.
Conflict of interest: The authors announce that there are no conflicts of interest.
Informed consent: Not applicable.
Ethical approval: Not applicable.
 Lopez A, Sims DE, Ablett RF, Skinner RE, Léger LW, Lariviere CM, et al. Effect of emu oil on auricular inflammation induced with croton oil in mice. Am J Vet Res. 1999;60:1558–61.Search in Google Scholar
 Jeengar MK, Kumar PS, Thummuri D, Shrivastava S, Guntuku L, Sistla R, et al. Review on emu products for use as complementary and alternative medicine. Nutrition. 2015;31:21–7.10.1016/j.nut.2014.04.004Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Abimosleh SM, Tran CD, Howarth GS. Emu oil: a novel therapeutic for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract? J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;27:857–61.10.1111/j.1440-1746.2012.07098.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
 Vemu B, Selvasubramanian S, Pandiyan V. Emu oil offers protection in Crohn’s disease model in rats. J Aust-Tradit Med Soc. 2016;22:44.10.1186/s12906-016-1035-ySearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
 Afshar M, Ghaderi R, Zardast M, Delshad P. Effects of topical emu oil on burn wounds in the skin of Balb/c mice. Dermatol Res Pract. 2016;2016:6.10.1155/2016/6419216Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
 Howarth GS, Lindsay RJ, Butler RN, Geier MS. Can emu oil ameliorate inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal system? Aust J Exp Agric. 2008;48:1276–9.10.1071/EA08139Search in Google Scholar
 Sethuraman SN, Swaminathan S, Nelson SB, Palaninathan PS, Gopalan TK, Velayudham P. Modulation of PPARγ and TNFα by emu oil and glycyrrhizin in ulcerative colitis. Inflammopharmacology. 2015;23:47–56.10.1007/s10787-014-0226-8Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Bennett DC, Tun HM, Kim JE, Leung FC, Cheng KM. Characterization of cecal microbiota of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Vet Microbiol. 2013;166:304–10.10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.05.018Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Lindsay RJ, Geier MS, Yazbeck R, Butler RN. Orally administered emu oil decreases acute inflammation and alters selected small intestinal parameters in a rat model of mucositis. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:513–9.10.1017/S000711451000084XSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
 Jimenez JH, Soerensen DD, He Z, He S, Yoganathan AP. Effects of a saddle shaped annulus on mitral valve function and chordal force distribution: an in vitro study. Ann Biomed Eng. 2003;31:1171–81.10.1114/1.1616929Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Minaei A, Sabzichi M, Ramezani F, Hamishehkar H, Samadi N. Co-delivery with nano-quercetin enhances doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Mol Biol Rep. 2016;43:99–105.10.1007/s11033-016-3942-xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
 Tsai ML, Lin CC, Lin WC, Yang CH. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from five selected herbs. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75:1977–83.10.1271/bbb.110377Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Hajizadeh YS, Emami E, Nottagh M, Amini Z, Maroufi NF, Azimian SH, et al. Effects of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) gene 86 bp VNTR polymorphism on recurrent pregnancy loss: a case-control study. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2017;30.10.1515/hmbci-2017-0010Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Politis M, Dmytrowich A. Promotion of second intention wound healing by emu oil lotion: comparative results with furasin, polysporin, and cortisone. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998;102:2404–7.10.1097/00006534-199812000-00020Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Unnithan AR, Tirupathi Pichiah PB, Gnanasekaran G, Seenivasan K, Barakat NA, Cha Y-S, et al. Emu oil-based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for wound skin tissue engineering. Colloids Surf A: Physicochem Eng Asp. 2012;415:454–60.10.1016/j.colsurfa.2012.09.029Search in Google Scholar
 Maroufi NF, Vahedian V, Mazrakhondi SA, Kooti W, Khiavy HA, Bazzaz R, et al. Sensitization of MDA-MBA231 breast cancer cell to docetaxel by myricetin loaded into biocompatible lipid nanoparticles via sub-G1 cell cycle arrest mechanism. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2019:1–11.10.1007/s00210-019-01692-5Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Tupal A, Sabzichi M, Bazzaz R, Fathi Maroufi N, Mohammadi M, Pirouzpanah SM, et al. Application of ɑ-tocotrienol-loaded biocompatible precirol in attenuation of doxorubicin dose-dependent behavior in HUH-7 hepatocarcinoma cell line. Nutr Cancer. 2019:1–9.10.1080/01635581.2019.1650191Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Gelain F, Bottai D, Vescovi A, Zhang S. Designer self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds for adult mouse neural stem cell 3-dimensional cultures. PLoS One. 2006;1:e119.10.1371/journal.pone.0000119Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
 Zhong S, Teo WE, Zhu X, Beuerman RW, Ramakrishna S, Yung LY. An aligned nanofibrous collagen scaffold by electrospinning and its effects on in vitro fibroblast culture. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006;79:456–63.10.1002/jbm.a.30870Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Hajipour H, Hamishehkar H, Nazari Soltan Ahmad S, Barghi S, Maroufi NF, Taheri RA. Improved anticancer effects of epigallocatechin gallate using RGD-containing nanostructured lipid carriers. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2018;46(sup1):283–92.10.1080/21691401.2017.1423493Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Gordon MK, DeSantis-Rodrigues A, Hahn R, Zhou P, Chang Y, Svoboda KK, et al. The molecules in the corneal basement membrane zone affected by mustard exposure suggest potential therapies. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2016;1378:158.10.1111/nyas.13226Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
 Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi Y, Nouri M, Martino MM, Fattahi A, Alizadeh E, Darabi M, et al. Cytoprotection, proliferation and epidermal differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells on emu oil based electrospun nanofibrous mat. Exp Cell Res. 2017;357:192–201.10.1016/j.yexcr.2017.05.015Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Chakrabarti P, Prasad R. Isolation and characterization of oil from fatty tissues of emu birds farmed in India. J Lipid Sci Technol. 2013;45:13–9.Search in Google Scholar
 Kong M, Hwang DS, Lee JY, Yoon SW. The efficacy and safety of Jaungo, a traditional medicinal ointment, in preventing radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized pilot study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:9481413.10.1155/2016/9481413Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
 Unnithan AR, Barakat NA, Pichiah PT, Gnanasekaran G, Nirmala R, Cha YS, et al. Wound-dressing materials with antibacterial activity from electrospun polyurethane–dextran nanofiber mats containing ciprofloxacin HCl. Carbohydr Polym. 2012;90:1786–93.10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.07.071Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Jeengar MK, Shrivastava S, Nair K, Singareddy SR, Putcha UK, Talluri MK, et al. Improvement of bioavailability and anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin in combination with emu oil. Inflammation. 2014;37:2139–55.10.1007/s10753-014-9948-4Search in Google Scholar PubMed
© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston