Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 7, 2020

The effectiveness of military physical exercise on irisin concentrations and oxidative stress among male healthy volunteers

Kazheen Hussein Jawzal, Suad Yousif Alkass, Alan Bapeer Hassan and Deldar Morad Abdulah ORCID logo



Irisin, a newly discovered hormone, is secreted into the circulation from skeletal muscles in response to physical exercise. The biochemical parameters related to irisin secretion have not been sufficiently investigated yet. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of exercise on the level of irisin and its correlation with biochemical and oxidative stress parameters.

Materials and methods

In this pre- and post-test observational study, 39 healthy male volunteers from a military training setting were followed up on between September and November 2015. The individuals who were included in this study were between 22 and 27 years old with an average age of 24. Those with inflammatory disorders or chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus were excluded from the study. The parameters were measured at the baseline, at 4 weeks, and at 8 weeks of intervention.


The study found that the systolic and diastolic blood pressures substantially decreased after 8 weeks of intervention. The cholesterol-to-HDL ratio and glucose levels were significantly higher at the baseline compared to 8 weeks. Total protein and albumin were significantly higher following 4 weeks (0.25 and 0.21 g/dL) and 8 weeks (0.32 and 0.16 g/dL), respectively. Meanwhile, total globulin and irisin increased following 8 weeks of the intervention by only 0.16 g/dL and 0.41 μg/mL, respectively. The high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) decreased following 8 weeks (−0.81 μg/mL). The protein carbonyl (PC) decreased following 4 weeks by only 0.34 nmol/L.


This study demonstrated that military training enhanced irisin hormone secretion following 8 weeks of military exercise.

Corresponding author: Deldar Morad Abdulah, Master in Public Health (Australia), Community Health Unit: College of Nursing, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan. Phone: +964 7507443319, E-mail: . Google Scholar:

  1. Research Funding: None declared.

  2. Conflict of interest: None declared.

  3. Informed Consent: The subjects voluntarily participated in the study. Written consent was taken from all the subjects prior to biochemical measurements.

  4. Ethical Approval: The ethical approval of this protocol was obtained from the local health ethics committee.


1. Huh JY, Siopi A, Mougios V, Park KH, Mantzoros CS. Irisin in response to exercise in humans with and without metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2015;100:E453–E7. Search in Google Scholar

2. Boström P, Wu J, Jedrychowski MP, Korde A, Ye L, Lo JC, et al. A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis. Nature 2012;481:463–68. Search in Google Scholar

3. Hassan II, Hassan AB, Rajab HA, Saadi FS, Abdulah DM, Majeed AAA, et al. Association of irisin and oxidative stress with biochemical parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome. Horm Mol Biol Clin Invest 2019;39. Search in Google Scholar

4. Choi Y-K, Kim M-K, Bae KH, Seo H-A, Jeong J-Y, Lee W-K, et al. Serum irisin levels in new-onset type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013;100:96–101. Search in Google Scholar

5. Crujeiras AB, Zulet MA, Lopez-Legarrea P, de la Iglesia R, Pardo M, Carreira MC, et al. Association between circulating irisin levels and the promotion of insulin resistance during the weight maintenance period after a dietary weight-lowering program in obese patients. Metabolism 2014;63:520–31. Search in Google Scholar

6. de la Iglesia R, Lopez‐Legarrea P, Crujeiras AB, Pardo M, Casanueva FF, Zulet MA, et al. Plasma irisin depletion under energy restriction is associated with improvements in lipid profile in metabolic syndrome patients. Clin Endocrinol 2014;81:306–11. Search in Google Scholar

7. Marin DP, Bolin AP, Campoio TR, Guerra BA, Otton R. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status response of handball athletes: implications for sport training monitoring. Int Immunopharm 2013;17:462–70. Search in Google Scholar

8. Tian Y-Y, Jiang B, An L-J, Bao Y-M. Neuroprotective effect of catalpol against MPP+-induced oxidative stress in mesencephalic neurons. Eur J Pharmacol 2007;568:142–8. Search in Google Scholar

9. Davies KJ. Protein damage and degradation by oxygen radicals. I. general aspects. J Biol Chem 1987;262:9895–901. Search in Google Scholar

10. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007;39:44–84. Search in Google Scholar

11. McArdle A, Vasilaki A, Jackson M. Exercise and skeletal muscle ageing: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Ageing Res Rev 2002;1:79–93. Search in Google Scholar

12. Radak Z, Chung HY, Koltai E, Taylor AW, Goto S. Exercise, oxidative stress and hormesis. Ageing Res Rev 2008;7:34–42. Search in Google Scholar

13. Ji LL, Gomez‐Cabrera MC, Vina J. Exercise and hormesis: activation of cellular antioxidant signaling pathway. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006;1067:425–35. Search in Google Scholar

14. Fulle S, Protasi F, Di Tano G, Pietrangelo T, Beltramin A, Boncompagni S, et al. The contribution of reactive oxygen species to sarcopenia and muscle ageing. Exp Gerontol 2004;39:17–24. Search in Google Scholar

15. Shrivastava AK, Singh HV, Raizada A, Singh SK. C-reactive protein, inflammation and coronary heart disease. Egypt Heart J. 2015;67:89–97. Search in Google Scholar

16. Al Hindawi M, Mujalli M. Effect of resistance exercise training on c-reactive protein level in healthy men in Jordan. Dirasat Educ Sci 2011;162:1–22. Search in Google Scholar

17. Shriram RS, Baburao NV, Purna S, Raju A, Kodumuri P, Jhansi K. Effect of physical training on lipid profile in healthy, young males: a follow up study. Int J Physiother Res 2015;3:1081–5. Search in Google Scholar

18. Adogu P, Meludu S, Modebe I, Ubajaka C. Albumin and lipid profiles following treadmill exercise among student volunteers of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria. Open J Prev Med 2015;5:227–35. Search in Google Scholar

19. Ruchala M, Zybek A, Szczepanek-Parulska E. Serum irisin levels and thyroid function—Newly discovered association. Peptides 2014;60:51–5. Search in Google Scholar

20. Richard C, Couture P, Desroches S, Charest A, Lamarche B. Effect of the Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors in men with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metabol Cardiovasc Dis 2011;21:628–35. Search in Google Scholar

21. Menden E, Boiano J, Murthy L, Petering H. Modification of a p-phenylenediamine oxidase method to permit non-automated ceruloplasmin determinations in batches of rat serum or plasma microsamples. Anal Lett 1977;10:197–204. Search in Google Scholar

22. Van Uffelen E, Van der Zee J, de Koster M, Van Steveninck JElferink G. Intracellular but not extracellular conversion of nitroxyl anion into nitric oxide leads to stimulation of human neutrophil migration. Biochem J 1998,330, 719–22. Search in Google Scholar

23. Levine R, Garland D, Oliver C, Amici A, Climent I, Lenz A, Climent I, et al., Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. In: Methods in enzymology, 186. Methods in enzymology; 1990. pp. 464–78. Search in Google Scholar

24. Thompson PD, Buchner D, Piña IL, Balady GJ, Williams MA, Marcus BH, et al. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention) and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity). Circulation 2003;107:3109–16. Search in Google Scholar

25. Huh JY, Panagiotou G, Mougios V, Brinkoetter M, Vamvini MT, Schneider BE, et al. FNDC5 and irisin in humans: I. Predictors of circulating concentrations in serum and plasma and II. mRNA expression and circulating concentrations in response to weight loss and exercise. Metabolism 2012;61:1725–38. Search in Google Scholar

26. Cooke A, Gomez Y, Mutter A, Mantzoros C, Daskalopoulou S. Irisin, a novel hormone and exercise intensity in young healthy subjects. Can J Cardiol. 2013;29:S340–S1. Search in Google Scholar

27. Daskalopoulou SS, Cooke AB, Gomez Y-H, Mutter AF, Filippaios A, Mesfum ET, et al. Plasma irisin levels progressively increase in response to increasing exercise workloads in young, healthy, active subjects. Eur J Endocrinol 2014;171:343–52. Search in Google Scholar

28. Norheim F, Langleite TM, Hjorth M, Holen T, Kielland A, Stadheim HK, et al. The effects of acute and chronic exercise on PGC‐1α, irisin and browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. FEBS J 2014;281:739–49. Search in Google Scholar

29. Boström PA, Fernández-Real JM. Metabolism: irisin, the metabolic syndrome and follistatin in humans. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2014;10:11–2. Search in Google Scholar

30. Shanaki M, Moradi N, Emamgholipour S, Fadaei R, Poustchi H. Lower circulating irisin is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Syndrome: Clin Res Rev 2017;11:S467–S72. Search in Google Scholar

31. Kraemer RR, Shockett P, Webb ND, Shah U, Castracane VD. A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women. Horm Metab Res 2014;46:150–4. Search in Google Scholar

32. Sum C, Wang K, Choo D, Tan C, Fok A, Tan E. The effect of a 5-month supervised program of physical activity on anthropometric indices, fat-free mass, and resting energy expenditure in obese male military recruits. Metabolism 1994;43:1148–52. Search in Google Scholar

33. Durstine JL, Grandjean PW, Cox CA, Thompson PD. Lipids, lipoproteins, and exercise. J Cardpulm Rehabil Prev 2002;22:385–98. Search in Google Scholar

34. McTiernan A, Sorensen B, Irwin ML, Morgan A, Yasui Y, Rudolph RE, et al. Exercise effect on weight and body fat in men and women. Obesity 2007;15:1496–512. Search in Google Scholar

35. Leon AS, Rice T, Mandel S, Despres J-P, Bergeron J, Gagnon J, et al. Blood lipid response to 20 weeks of supervised exercise in a large biracial population: the HERITAGE Family Study. Metabolism 2000;49:513–20. Search in Google Scholar

36. Stasiulis A, Mockienė A, Vizbaraitė D, Mockus P. Aerobic exercise-induced changes in body composition and blood lipids in young women. Medicina 2010;46:129. Search in Google Scholar

37. Dylewicz P, Bienkowska S, Szczesniak L, Rychlewski T, Przywarska I, Wilk M, et al. Beneficial effect of short-term endurance training on glucose metabolism during rehabilitation after coronary bypass surgery. Chest 2000;117:47–51. Search in Google Scholar

38. Gaesser GA, Rich RG. Effects of high-and low-intensity exercise training on aerobic capacity and blood lipids. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1984;16:269–74. Search in Google Scholar

39. Tarr M, Samson F. Oxygen free radicals in tissue damage, Springer Science & Business Media; 2013. Search in Google Scholar

40. Sirajwala H, Dabhi A, Malukar N, Bhalgami R, Pandya T. Serum ceruloplasmin level as an extracellular antioxidant in acute myocardial infarction. J Indian Acad Clin Med 2007;8:135–8. Search in Google Scholar

41. Zakirova A. The clinico-hemodynamic effects of the antioxidant ceruloplasmin in IHD patients. Ter Arkh 1995;67:33–5. Search in Google Scholar

42. Sacheck JM, Milbury PE, Cannon JG, Roubenoff R, Blumberg JB. Effect of vitamin E and eccentric exercise on selected biomarkers of oxidative stress in young and elderly men. Free Radic Biol Med 2003;34:1575–88. Search in Google Scholar

43. Chance B, Sies H, Boveris A. Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiol Rev 1979;59:527–605. Search in Google Scholar

44. Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev 2007;87:315–424. Search in Google Scholar

45. Bielicki JK, Forte TM, McCall MR. Gas-phase cigarette smoke inhibits plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity by modification of the enzyme’s free thiols. Biochim Biophys Acta Lipids Lipid Metabol 1995;1258:35–40. Search in Google Scholar

46. Johnson WJ, Mahlberg FH, Rothblat GH, Phillips MC. Cholesterol transport between cells and high-density lipoproteins. Biochim Biophys Acta Lipids Lipid Metabol 1991;1085:273–98. Search in Google Scholar

47. Santangelo L, Cigliano L, Montefusco A, Spagnuolo M, Nigro G, Golino P, et al. Evaluation of the antioxidant response in the plasma of healthy or hypertensive subjects after short-term exercise. J Hum Hypertens 2003;17:791–8. Search in Google Scholar

48. Balavoine GG, Geletii YV. Peroxynitrite scavenging by different antioxidants. Part I: convenient assay. Nitric Oxide 1999;3:40–54. Search in Google Scholar

49. Sjödin B, Westing YH, Apple FS. Biochemical mechanisms for oxygen free radical formation during exercise. Sports Med. 1990;10:236–54. Search in Google Scholar

50. Ohtahara A, Hisatome I, Yamamoto Y, Furuse M, Sonoyama K, Furuse Y, et al. The release of the substrate for xanthine oxidase in hypertensive patients was suppressed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and α1-blockers. J Hypertens 2001;19:575–82. Search in Google Scholar

51. Wadley AJ, Turner JE, Aldred S. Factors influencing post-exercise plasma protein carbonyl concentration. Free Radic Res 2016;50:375–84. Search in Google Scholar

52. Ridker PM. Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation 2003;107:363–9. Search in Google Scholar

53. Bilhorn KR, Luo Y, Lee BT, Wong ND. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular disease in United States adults. Am J Cardiol 2012;110:1464–7. Search in Google Scholar

54. Visser M, Bouter LM, McQuillan GM, Wener MH, Harris TB. Elevated C-reactive protein levels in overweight and obese adults. Jama 1999;282:2131–5. Search in Google Scholar

55. Abramson JL, Vaccarino V. Relationship between physical activity and inflammation among apparently healthy middle-aged and older US adults. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1286–92. Search in Google Scholar

56. Hambrecht R, Wolf A, Gielen S, Linke A, Hofer J, Erbs S, et al. Effect of exercise on coronary endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:454–60. Search in Google Scholar

57. Taddei S, Galetta F, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, Salvetti G, Franzoni F, et al. Physical activity prevents age-related impairment in nitric oxide availability in elderly athletes. Circulation 2000;101:2896–901. Search in Google Scholar

58. Shern-Brewer R, Santanam N, Wetzstein C, White-Welkley J, Parthasarathy S. Exercise and cardiovascular disease: a new perspective. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:1181–7. Search in Google Scholar

59. Berliner JA, Navab M, Fogelman AM, Frank JS, Demer LL, Edwards PA, et al. Atherosclerosis: basic mechanisms: oxidation, inflammation, and genetics. Circulation 1995;91:2488–96. Search in Google Scholar

60. Aronson D, Sheikh-Ahmad M, Avizohar O, Kerner A, Sella R, Bartha P, et al. C-Reactive protein is inversely related to physical fitness in middle-aged subjects. Atherosclerosis 2004;176:173–9. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-01-22
Accepted: 2020-02-28
Published Online: 2020-05-07

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston