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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 14, 2022

Exploring the relationship between vitamin D and leptin hormones in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients from Kuwait

Fatmah Lari , Taiba Alabduljaleel , Olusegun Mojiminiyi , Dia Shehab and Rabeah Abbas Al-Temaimi ORCID logo EMAIL logo

Abstract

Background

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are prevalent in Kuwait. Vitamin D (VD) deficiency and leptin resistance are risk factors for both disorders. A correlation between the two risk factors has been suggested albeit inconsistently reported. Our objective was to determine the effect and association of VD and leptin levels and their related common variants with T2DM.

Methods

This case-control study included 203 Kuwaiti T2DM patients and 162 healthy Kuwaiti controls. Leptin and VD levels were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Genotyping of LEP rs7799039, LEPR rs1137101, VDR rs2228570 and rs731236 was performed using Taqman genotyping assays.

Results

Leptin levels were higher in T2DM patients than controls, but vitamin D levels did not differ. No correlation was found between the levels of the two hormones. VDR rs731236G associated with T2DM risk (Odds ratio 1.66, p=0.0008). VDR haplotype analysis revealed GG/AA, GA/AA or GG/AG to associate with T2DM risk (p=0.01) and increased risk of diabetic neuropathy (p=0.002). VDR rs2228570GG associated with leptin levels in T2DM (p=0.01). Effect of LEP rs7799039 on leptin (p=0.01) and VD levels (p=0.02) was only evident in healthy controls.

Conclusions

VDR rs731236G is associated with T2DM risk in Kuwait, and a VDR haplotype of a less active, low expressing VDR is associated with T2DM and diabetic neuropathy risk. Common variants in leptin and VD related genes appear to mediate the suggested positive correlation of both hormones however their influence is disrupted in T2DM.


Corresponding author: Rabeah Abbas Al-Temaimi, BSc, MSc, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Pathology, Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, P.O.Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contribution: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  4. Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.

  5. Ethical approval: Ethical approval was granted from the Joint Committee for The Protection of Human Subjects at Kuwait’s health sciences center (HSC), and from the ethical review committee (ERC) of the ministry of health in the state of Kuwait both of which adhere to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki-Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects.

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Received: 2021-11-10
Accepted: 2022-03-13
Published Online: 2022-04-14

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