Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 9, 2015

Plant-specific CC-type glutaredoxins: functions in developmental processes and stress responses

Nora Gutsche, Corinna Thurow, Sabine Zachgo and Christiane Gatz
From the journal Biological Chemistry


Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin family proteins that can either regulate the thiol redox state of proteins or are linked to iron metabolism because of their ability to incorporate iron-sulfur [2Fe–2S] clusters. Here we review recent research on a land plant-specific class of GRX-like proteins, which are characterized by the conserved CC motif in the active centre. Loss-of-function mutants of CC-type GRXs in Arabidopsis (also named ROXYs), maize, and rice have unraveled a role in floral development, including regulation of organ primordia initiation, control of organ identity gene expression, and progression into meiosis in the male germ line. Other CC-type GRXs play a role in stress responses, most likely through their capacity to regulate nuclear gene expression. Consistently, CC-type GRXs, physically and genetically interact with individual members of the TGA transcription factor family. One of the challenges in the future is to unravel whether ROXYs control the redox state of TGA factors or other yet unknown target proteins or whether they regulate gene expression through other processes. Other intriguing questions concern the original function of the first CC-type GRXs in basal land plants and their potential contribution to the extremely successful radiation of angiosperms.

Corresponding author: Christiane Gatz, Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, Georg August University Göttingen, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany, e-mail:


The financial support given to the authors’ labs by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) within the framework of SPP1710 (GA330/25-1; ZA 259/7-1) is gratefully acknowledged.


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Received: 2014-12-8
Accepted: 2015-3-2
Published Online: 2015-3-9
Published in Print: 2015-5-1

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