Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 14, 2015

The volume-regulated anion channel is formed by LRRC8 heteromers – molecular identification and roles in membrane transport and physiology

Tobias Stauber
From the journal Biological Chemistry

Abstract

Cellular volume regulation is fundamental for numerous physiological processes. The volume-regulated anion channel, VRAC, plays a crucial role in regulatory volume decrease. This channel, which is ubiquitously expressed in vertebrates, has been vastly characterized by electrophysiological means. It opens upon cell swelling and conducts chloride and arguably organic osmolytes. VRAC has been proposed to be critically involved in various cellular and organismal functions, including cell proliferation and migration, apoptosis, transepithelial transport, swelling-induced exocytosis and intercellular communication. It may also play a role in pathological states like cancer and ischemia. Despite many efforts, the molecular identity of VRAC had remained elusive for decades, until the recent discovery of heteromers of LRRC8A with other LRRC8 family members as an essential VRAC component. This identification marks a starting point for studies on the structure-function relation, for molecular biological investigations of its cell biology and for re-evaluating the physiological roles of VRAC. This review recapitulates the identification of LRRC8 heteromers as VRAC components, depicts the similarities between LRRC8 proteins and pannexins, and discussed whether VRAC conducts larger osmolytes. Furthermore, proposed physiological functions of VRAC and the present knowledge about the physiological significance of LRRC8 proteins are summarized and collated.


Corresponding author: Tobias Stauber, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Thielallee 63, D-14195 Berlin, Germany, e-mail:

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Thomas Jentsch, Jonas Münch, Florian Ullrich and Felizia Voss for the figures and for the teamwork during the molecular identification of VRAC. I apologize to those whose work was omitted owing to space and reference limitations. I am grateful for financial support from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), e:Bio grant no. 031A314.

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Received: 2015-2-15
Accepted: 2015-4-2
Published Online: 2015-4-14
Published in Print: 2015-9-1

©2015 by De Gruyter