Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag April 22, 2021

UX at the Right Level

Appropriately Plan the UX Expertise Using the PUXMM – A UX Maturity Model for Projects

David Gilbert, Holger Fischer and Dirk Röder
From the journal i-com


Usability and user experience maturity models are used to evaluate the capabilities of an organization in order to provide an assessment of their ability to develop usable products. But, as the main focus of such models is on an all-encompassing organizational level, they are difficult to implement in more complex organizations with a wide range of diverse and interlinked projects.

This paper presents a project related UX maturity model, which was developed at DB Systel to address this issue: the PUXMM. It takes into account the nested internal customer relationships between departments and subcontractors and applies a human-centered design approach. There are two practical application scenarios for the PUXMM. It can be used to determine the UX maturity level of an ongoing project and as checklist to align a project to a desired maturity level from the outset.


At this point we would like to thank especially Torsten Michelmann, Sascha Eckart and Thorsten Riehn. Without their support the creation of this model would not have been possible.


[1] Bitkom (2017). Bitkom Role Model “Digital Design” – Successful digitalization and digital transformation require a rethink in software development., last accessed 2019/12/22.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Biundo, S., Höller, D., Schattenberg, B., & Bercher, P. (2016). Companion-technology: an overview. KI – Künstliche Intelligenz, 30(1), 11–20.10.1007/s13218-015-0419-3Search in Google Scholar

[3] Brown, T., & Katz, B. (2011). Change by design. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(3), 381–383.10.1111/j.1540-5885.2011.00806.xSearch in Google Scholar

[4] Carvajal, C. L., & Moreno, A. M. (2017, October). The maturity of usability maturity models. In: International Conference on Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination (pp. 85–99). Springer, Cham.10.1007/978-3-319-67383-7_7Search in Google Scholar

[5] CMMI Institute (2020). Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) v2.0. (last reviewed: July 27, 2020).Search in Google Scholar

[6] Cooper, R. G. (1990). Stage-gate systems: a new tool for managing new products. Business Horizons, 33(3), 44–54.10.1016/0007-6813(90)90040-ISearch in Google Scholar

[7] Diefenbach, S., & Hassenzahl, M. (2017). Psychologie in der nutzerzentrierten Produktgestaltung. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.10.1007/978-3-662-53026-9Search in Google Scholar

[8] DIN SPEC 92412 (2015). Ergonomics of human-system interaction – Auditing procedure for the development of interactive products based on DIN EN ISO 9241-210.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Dorst, K. (2011). The core of ‘design thinking’ and its application. Design Studies, 32(6), 521–532.10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006Search in Google Scholar

[10] Dubberly, H. (2004). How do you design. A compendium of models.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Earthy, J. (1998). Usability Maturity Model: Human Centredness Scale: INUSE Project Deliverable D5.1.4 (s) Version 1.2. Technical report, Llyod’s Register, 71 Fenchurch St, London, EC3M 4BS.Search in Google Scholar

[12] Eason, H. (1997) User Centred Design Maturity. Internal Working Document. Technical report, Department of Human Sciences. Loughborough University.Search in Google Scholar

[13] Fitzgerald, B., & Stol, K. J. (2017). Continuous software engineering: A roadmap and agenda. Journal of Systems and Software, 123, 176–189.10.1016/j.jss.2015.06.063Search in Google Scholar

[14] Flanaghan G. A. (1995). IBM Usability Leadership Maturity model (self-assessment version). In: I. Katz, R. Mack, L. Marks, M. B. Rosson & J. Nielsen (eds.), Proceedings of CHI’95: Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM Press.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Johnson, D., Stern, S. et al. (2017). The Employee Experience Imperative. The Experience Factors that Matter Most to Employees – and How to Improve Them. Forrester.Search in Google Scholar

[16] Fowler, M., & Highsmith, J. (2001). The agile manifesto. Software Development, 9(8), 28–35.Search in Google Scholar

[17] Gänshirt, C. (2012). Tools for ideas: Introduction to architectural design. Walter de Gruyter.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Garrett, J. J. (2010). The elements of user experience: user-centered design for the web and beyond. Pearson Education.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Gilbert, D. (2020). Design-driven Development und Requirements Engineering. Objektspektrum, 04.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Gilbert, D. (2019). The concept in crisis. Designreport, 02.Search in Google Scholar

[21] Gilbert, D. (2018). Digitales Design als Update der “klassischen” Softwareentwicklung. In Denzinger, J. (ed.) Das Design digitaler Produkte: Entwicklungen, Anwendungen, Perspektiven. Birkhäuser.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Gilbert, D., Röder, D., & Fischer, H. (2019). UX auf dem richtigen Level! // UX-Fachkompetenz mittels Reifegradmatrix für Projekte & Produkte angemessen einplanen. Mensch und Computer 2019 – Usability Professionals.Search in Google Scholar

[23] Glinz, M., & Fricker, S. A. (2015). On shared understanding in software engineering: an essay. Computer Science – Research and Development, 30(3-4), 363–376.10.1007/s00450-014-0256-xSearch in Google Scholar

[24] Gupta, A. (1997). The Humanware Process Improvement Framework: Interfacing User Centred Design and the Product Creation Process at Philips.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Immich, T. (2018). Continuous UX – “Lean” und “Large” unter einem Dach. Mensch und Computer 2018 – Usability Professionals.Search in Google Scholar

[26] ISO 9241-210 (2019). Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems.Search in Google Scholar

[27] ISO 9241-220 (2019). Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 220: Processes for enabling, executing and assessing human-centred design within organizations.Search in Google Scholar

[28] ISO/IEC 15504-2 (2003). Information technology — Process assessment — Part 2: Performing an assessment.Search in Google Scholar

[29] ISO/IEC 15504-5 (2012). Information technology — Process assessment — Part 5: An exemplar software life cycle process assessment model.Search in Google Scholar

[30] ISO TS 18152 (2010). Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Specification for the process assessment of human-system issues.Search in Google Scholar

[31] ISO/TR 18529 (2000). Ergonomics — Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Human-centred lifecycle process descriptions.Search in Google Scholar

[32] Jacobson, I., Ng, P. W., McMahon, P. E., Spence, I., & Lidman, S. (2012). The essence of software engineering: the SEMAT kernel. Communications of the ACM, 55(12), 42–49.10.1145/2380656.2380670Search in Google Scholar

[33] Johanssen, J. O., Kleebaum, A., Paech, B., & Bruegge, B. (2018, May). Practitioners’ eye on continuous software engineering: an interview study. In: Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Software and System Process (pp. 41–50).10.1145/3202710.3203150Search in Google Scholar

[34] Jokela, T. (2010). Usability maturity models: making your company user-centered. User Experience Magazine, 9(1).Search in Google Scholar

[35] Kelly, K. (2017). The inevitable: understanding the 12 technological forces that will shape our future. Penguin.Search in Google Scholar

[36] Kieffer, S., Rukonić, L., de Meerendré, V. K., & Vanderdonckt, J. (2019, February). A process reference model for UX. In: International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics (pp. 128–152). Springer, Cham.10.1007/978-3-030-41590-7_6Search in Google Scholar

[37] Kieffer, S., Rukonic, L., de Meerendré, V. K., & Vanderdonckt, J. (2019). Specification of a UX process reference model towards the strategic planning of UX activities. In: VISIGRAPP (2: HUCAPP) (pp. 74–85).Search in Google Scholar

[38] Kuusinen, K. (2015, September). Continuous user experience development. In: INTERACT 2015 Adjunct Proceedings: 15th IFIP TC. 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 14–18 September 2015, Bamberg, Germany (Vol. 22, p. 233). University of Bamberg Press.Search in Google Scholar

[39] Lauenroth, K., Bramsiepe, H., Gilbert, D., Hartwig, R., Lehn, K., Schubert, U., Trapp, M. (2018). Das Digital-Design-Manifest. in Google Scholar

[40] Lauenroth, K., Schreiber, F., & Schreiber, F. (2016). Maschinen-und Anlagenbau im digitalen Zeitalter: Requirements Engineering als systematische Gestaltungskompetenz für die Fertigungsindustrie Industrie 4.0. Beuth Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

[41] Nielsen, J. (2006). Corporate UX Maturity. (last reviewed: July 27, 2020).Search in Google Scholar

[42] Norman, D., & Nielsen, J. (2016). The definition of user experience (UX). Nielsen Norman Group Publication, 1.Search in Google Scholar

[43] Object Modelling Group (2018). Essence Specification Version 1.2. in Google Scholar

[44] Open Group (2018). The TOGAF® Standard, Version 9.2.Search in Google Scholar

[45] Paulk, M. C., Curtis, B., Chrissis, M. B., & Weber, C. V. (1993). Capability maturity model, version 1.1. IEEE Software, 10(4), 18–27.10.21236/ADA263403Search in Google Scholar

[46] Peres, A. L., et al.(2014) AGILEUX model: towards a reference model on integrating UX in developing software using agile methodologies. In: 2014 Agile Conference, AGILE 2014, pp. 61–63.10.1109/AGILE.2014.15Search in Google Scholar

[47] Rittel, H. W., & Webber, M. M. (1973). 2.3 planning problems are wicked. Polity, 4(155), e169.Search in Google Scholar

[48] Salah, D., Paige, R., & Cairns, P. (2016). A maturity model for integrating agile processes and user centred design. In: International Conference on Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination. Springer International Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

[49] Schaffer, E., & Lahiri, A. (2013). Institutionalization of UX: a step-by-step guide to a user experience practice. Addison-Wesley.Search in Google Scholar

[50] Sedano, T., Ralph, P., & Péraire, C. (2017, May). Software development waste. In 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE) (pp. 130–140). IEEE.10.1109/ICSE.2017.20Search in Google Scholar

[51] Spool, J. (2019). Driving Product Teams to Become More Design Mature. (last reviewed: July 27, 2020).Search in Google Scholar

[52] Tao, F., Sui, F., Liu, A., Qi, Q., Zhang, M., Song, B., Guo, Z., Stephen C.-Y. Lu, & Nee, A. Y. C. (2019). Digital twin-driven product design framework. International Journal of Production Research, 57(12), 3935–3953.10.1080/00207543.2018.1443229Search in Google Scholar

[53] Trillium (1994). Model for Telecom Product Development & Support Process Capability, Technical Report, Bell Canada.Search in Google Scholar

[54] VDI (2019). VDI 2221 Part 1 Design of technical products and systems – Model of product design.Search in Google Scholar

[55] Yang, Q., Steinfeld, A., Rosé, C., & Zimmerman, J. (2020, April). Re-examining whether, why, and how human-AI interaction is uniquely difficult to design. In: Proceedings of the 2020 Chi Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1–13).10.1145/3313831.3376301Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2021-04-22
Published in Print: 2021-04-27

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston