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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag September 8, 2021

Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures – Motivating Users to Contribute to Smart Grid Resilience

Rolf Egert

Rolf Egert is a Ph.D. student in the area of “Smart Protection in Infrastructures and Networks” (SPIN) at the Telekooperation Lab, Technische Universität Darmstadt under the direction of Prof. Max Mühlhäuser. Since 2020, he coordinates the security research of the Telecooperation Lab as the Area Head of SPIN. His current research interests include IT-security aspects in the domain of smart energy grids, bio-inspired optimization approaches, and resilient complex system infrastructures.

, Nina Gerber

Dr. Nina Gerber is a post-doctoral researcher in the research group “Work and Engineering Psychology” (FAI) at the Department of Psychology at the Technical University of Darmstadt. Her research interests are primarily in the areas of usable privacy & security, human-machine interaction, and human-centred product design. Previously, she was a doctoral researcher at the department of computer science at the Technical University of Darmstadt and at the Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods at KIT.

, Jasmin Haunschild

Jasmin Haunschild has been a researcher and doctoral student at PEASEC since 2019. For her Ph.D. in Computer Science, she investigates the design of technologies in safety and security related settings and their influence on agency-citizen relationships. In the mission SecUrban of the National Research Center for Applied Cybersecurity ATHENE, she applies this to the context of smart city digitalization. Previously, she worked at the Chair of International Relations at TU Braunschweig and Royal Holloway College, University of London.

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, Philipp Kuehn

Philipp Kühn is a researcher and doctoral student at Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) in the department of Computer Science of the Technical University of Darmstadt since 2020. He is currently working in the ATHENE Mission Secure Urban Infrastructures and the project CYWARN. His research evolves around the topics of gathering information for the field of information security out of open-source information sources, its preparation, and analysis.

and Verena Zimmermann

Dr. Verena Zimmermann is a post-doctoral researcher in the working group “Work and Engineering Psychology” at the Department of Psychology. Working in different research projects within the National Research Center of Applied Cybersecucity (CRISP) Verena Zimmermann is concerned with Human Factors in Security and Safety. Her research interests include usable authentication and communication, nudging in security and privacy, and user-centered design of smart devices and environments.

From the journal i-com

Abstract

Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers—capable of producing and consuming electricity—who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i. e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.

Funding statement: This research work has been funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the Hessian Ministry of Higher Education, Research, Science and the Arts within their joint support of the National Research Center for Applied Cybersecurity ATHENE and by the LOEWE initiative (Hesse, Germany) within the emergenCITY centre.

About the authors

Rolf Egert

Rolf Egert is a Ph.D. student in the area of “Smart Protection in Infrastructures and Networks” (SPIN) at the Telekooperation Lab, Technische Universität Darmstadt under the direction of Prof. Max Mühlhäuser. Since 2020, he coordinates the security research of the Telecooperation Lab as the Area Head of SPIN. His current research interests include IT-security aspects in the domain of smart energy grids, bio-inspired optimization approaches, and resilient complex system infrastructures.

Nina Gerber

Dr. Nina Gerber is a post-doctoral researcher in the research group “Work and Engineering Psychology” (FAI) at the Department of Psychology at the Technical University of Darmstadt. Her research interests are primarily in the areas of usable privacy & security, human-machine interaction, and human-centred product design. Previously, she was a doctoral researcher at the department of computer science at the Technical University of Darmstadt and at the Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods at KIT.

Jasmin Haunschild

Jasmin Haunschild has been a researcher and doctoral student at PEASEC since 2019. For her Ph.D. in Computer Science, she investigates the design of technologies in safety and security related settings and their influence on agency-citizen relationships. In the mission SecUrban of the National Research Center for Applied Cybersecurity ATHENE, she applies this to the context of smart city digitalization. Previously, she worked at the Chair of International Relations at TU Braunschweig and Royal Holloway College, University of London.

Philipp Kuehn

Philipp Kühn is a researcher and doctoral student at Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) in the department of Computer Science of the Technical University of Darmstadt since 2020. He is currently working in the ATHENE Mission Secure Urban Infrastructures and the project CYWARN. His research evolves around the topics of gathering information for the field of information security out of open-source information sources, its preparation, and analysis.

Verena Zimmermann

Dr. Verena Zimmermann is a post-doctoral researcher in the working group “Work and Engineering Psychology” at the Department of Psychology. Working in different research projects within the National Research Center of Applied Cybersecucity (CRISP) Verena Zimmermann is concerned with Human Factors in Security and Safety. Her research interests include usable authentication and communication, nudging in security and privacy, and user-centered design of smart devices and environments.

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Published Online: 2021-09-08
Published in Print: 2021-08-26

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