Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag April 1, 2022

QuarantivityVR: Supporting Self-Embodiment for Non-HMD Users in Asymmetric Social VR Games

Amal Yassien, Mohamed Ahmed Soliman and Slim Abdennadher
From the journal i-com


The prevalence of immersive head-mounted display (HMD) social virtual reality (VR) applications introduced asymmetric interaction among users within the virtual environment (VE). Therefore, researchers opted for (1) exploring the asymmetric social VR interaction dynamics in only co-located setups, (2) assigning interdependent roles to both HMD and non-HMD users, and (3) representing non-HMD users as abstract avatars in the VE. Therefore, we investigate the feasibility of supporting Self-Embodiment in an asymmetric VR interaction mode in a remote setup. To this end, we designed an asymmetric social VR game, QuarantivityVR, to (1) support sense of self-embodiment for non-HMD users in a remote setting by representing them as realistic full-body avatars within the VE, (2) augment visual-motor synchrony for the non-HMD users to increase their sense of agency and presence by detecting their motion through Kinect sensor and laptop’s webcam. During the game, each player performs three activities in succession, namely movie-guessing, spelling-bee, and answering mathematical questions. We believe that our work will act as a step towards the inclusion of a wide spectrum of users that can not afford full immersion and will aid researchers in creating enjoyable interactions for both users in the physical and virtual spaces.


[1] S AlAwadhi, N AlHabib, D Murad, F AlDeei, M AlHouti, T Beyrouthy, and S Al-Kork. 2017. Virtual reality application for interactive and informative learning. In 2017 2nd International Conference on Bio-engineering for Smart Technologies (BioSMART). IEEE, 1–4.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Steven R Aragon. 2003. Creating social presence in online environments. New directions for adult and continuing education 2003, 100 (2003), 57–68.10.1002/ace.119Search in Google Scholar

[3] Raffaello Brondi, Leila Alem, Giovanni Avveduto, Claudia Faita, Marcello Carrozzino, Franco Tecchia, and Massimo Bergamasco. 2015. Evaluating the impact of highly immersive technologies and natural interaction on player engagement and flow experience in games. In International Conference on Entertainment Computing. Springer, 169–181.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Raffaello Brondi, Giovanni Avveduto, Leila Alem, Claudia Faita, Marcello Carrozzino, Franco Tecchia, Y Pisan, and Massimo Bergamasco. 2015. Evaluating the effects of competition vs collaboration on user engagement in an immersive game using natural interaction. In Proceedings of the 21st ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology. ACM, 191.10.1145/2821592.2821643Search in Google Scholar

[5] James J Gibson. 1977. The theory of affordances. Hilldale, USA 1, 2 (1977), 67–82.Search in Google Scholar

[6] Jerônimo Gustavo Grandi, Henrique Galvan Debarba, and Anderson Maciel. 2019. Characterizing asymmetric collaborative interactions in virtual and augmented realities. In 2019 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR). IEEE, 127–135.10.1109/VR.2019.8798080Search in Google Scholar

[7] Jan Gugenheimer, Evgeny Stemasov, Julian Frommel, and Enrico Rukzio. 2017. Sharevr: Enabling co-located experiences for virtual reality between hmd and non-hmd users. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 4021–4033.10.1145/3025453.3025683Search in Google Scholar

[8] Jan Gugenheimer, Evgeny Stemasov, Harpreet Sareen, and Enrico Rukzio. 2018. FaceDisplay: Towards Asymmetric Multi-User Interaction for Nomadic Virtual Reality. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 54.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Sandra G Hart. 2006. NASA-task load index (NASA-TLX); 20 years later. In Proceedings of the human factors and ergonomics society annual meeting, Vol. 50. Sage publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA, 904–908.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Pascal Jansen, Fabian Fischbach, Jan Gugenheimer, Evgeny Stemasov, Julian Frommel, and Enrico Rukzio. 2020. ShARe: Enabling Co-Located Asymmetric Multi-User Interaction for Augmented Reality Head-Mounted Displays. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. 459–471.10.1145/3379337.3415843Search in Google Scholar

[11] Kisung Jeong, Jinmo Kim, Mingyu Kim, Jiwon Lee, and Chanhun Kim. 2020. Asymmetric interface: user interface of asymmetric virtual reality for new presence and experience. Symmetry 12, 1 (2020), 53.10.3390/sym12010053Search in Google Scholar

[12] Erika Katherine Johnson and Seoyeon Celine Hong. 2020. Instagramming Social Presence: A Test of Social Presence Theory and Heuristic Cues on Instagram Sponsored Posts. International Journal of Business Communication (2020), 2329488420944462.10.1177/2329488420944462Search in Google Scholar

[13] Sukran Karaosmanoglu, Katja Rogers, Dennis Wolf, Enrico Rukzio, Frank Steinicke, and Lennart E Nacke. 2021. Feels like team spirit: Biometric and strategic interdependence in asymmetric multiplayer VR games. In Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 1–15.10.1145/3411764.3445492Search in Google Scholar

[14] Marc Erich Latoschik, Daniel Roth, Dominik Gall, Jascha Achenbach, Thomas Waltemate, and Mario Botsch. 2017. The effect of avatar realism in immersive social virtual realities. In Proceedings of the 23rd ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology. ACM, 39.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Bettina Laugwitz, Theo Held, and Martin Schrepp. 2008. Construction and evaluation of a user experience questionnaire. In Symposium of the Austrian HCI and usability engineering group. Springer, 63–76.Search in Google Scholar

[16] Stefan Liszio and Maic Masuch. 2016. Designing shared virtual reality gaming experiences in local multi-platform games. In International Conference on Entertainment Computing. Springer, 235–240.Search in Google Scholar

[17] Giuseppe Mantovani and Giuseppe Riva. 1999. “Real” presence: how different ontologies generate different criteria for presence, telepresence, and virtual presence. Presence‘ 8, 5 (1999), 540–550.10.1162/105474699566459Search in Google Scholar

[18] Brian E Mennecke, Janea L Triplett, Lesya M Hassall, and Zayira Jordan Conde. 2010. Embodied social presence theory. In 2010 43rd Hawaii international conference on system sciences. IEEE, 1–10.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Catherine S Oh, Jeremy N Bailenson, and Gregory F Welch. 2018. A Systematic Review of Social Presence: Definition, Antecedents, and Implications. Front. Robot. AI 5. doi: 10.3389/frobt (2018), 114.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Niklas Osmers, Michael Prilla, Oliver Blunk, Gordon George Brown, Marc Janßen, and Nicolas Kahrl. 2021. The Role of Social Presence for Cooperation in Augmented Reality on Head Mounted Devices: A Literature Review. In Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 1–17.10.1145/3411764.3445633Search in Google Scholar

[21] Kaitlyn M Ouverson and Stephen B Gilbert. 2021. A Composite Framework of Co-located Asymmetric Virtual Reality. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 5, CSCW1 (2021), 1–20.10.1145/3449079Search in Google Scholar

[22] Xueni Pan and Antonia F de C Hamilton. 2018. Why and how to use virtual reality to study human social interaction: The challenges of exploring a new research landscape. British Journal of Psychology (2018).10.1111/bjop.12290Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[23] Thomas D Parsons, Andrea Gaggioli, and Giuseppe Riva. 2017. Virtual reality for research in social neuroscience. Brain sciences 7, 4 (2017), 42.10.3390/brainsci7040042Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[24] Giuseppe Riva, Fabrizio Davide, and Wijnand A IJsselsteijn. 2003. Being there: The experience of presence in mediated environments. Being there: Concepts, effects and measurement of user presence in synthetic environments 5 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

[25] Fiona M Rivera, Fons Fuijk, and Ebroul Izquierdo. 2015. Navigation in REVERIE’s virtual environments. In 2015 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR). IEEE, 273–274.10.1109/VR.2015.7223401Search in Google Scholar

[26] Martijn J Schuemie, Peter Van Der Straaten, Merel Krijn, and Charles APG Van Der Mast. 2001. Research on presence in virtual reality: A survey. CyberPsychology & Behavior 4, 2 (2001), 183–201.10.1089/109493101300117884Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[27] Valentin Schwind. 2018. Implications of the uncanny valley of avatars and virtual characters for human-computer interaction. (2018).Search in Google Scholar

[28] Valentin Schwind, Pascal Knierim, Nico Haas, and Niels Henze. 2019. Using presence questionnaires in virtual reality. In Proceedings of the 2019 CHI conference on human factors in computing systems. 1–12.10.1145/3290605.3300590Search in Google Scholar

[29] Mel Slater. 2003. A note on presence terminology. Presence connect 3, 3 (2003), 1–5.Search in Google Scholar

[30] Harrison Jesse Smith and Michael Neff. 2018. Communication Behavior in Embodied Virtual Reality. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 289.Search in Google Scholar

[31] Phil Turner. 2007. The intentional basis of presence. In Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on presence. 127–134.Search in Google Scholar

[32] Ina Wagner, Wolfgang Broll, Giulio Jacucci, Kari Kuutii, Rod McCall, Ann Morrison, Dieter Schmalstieg, and Jean-Jacques Terrin. 2009. On the role of presence in mixed reality. Presence 18, 4 (2009), 249–276.10.1162/pres.18.4.249Search in Google Scholar

[33] John Alexander Waterworth and Kei Hoshi. 2016. Human-experiential design of presence in everyday blended reality. Springer.10.1007/978-3-319-30334-5Search in Google Scholar

[34] Amal Yassien, Passant ElAgroudy, Elhassan Makled, and Slim Abdennadher. 2020. A Design Space for Social Presence in VR. In Proceedings of the 11th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society. 1–12.Search in Google Scholar

[35] Amal Yassien, ElHassan B Makled, Passant Elagroudy, Nouran Sadek, and Slim Abdennadher. 2021. Give-Me-A-Hand: The Effect of Partner’s Gender on Collaboration Quality in Virtual Reality. In Extended Abstracts of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 1–6.10.1145/3411763.3451601Search in Google Scholar

[36] Qimeng Zhang, Ji-Su Ban, Mingyu Kim, Hae Won Byun, and Chang-Hun Kim. 2021. Low-Asymmetry Interface for Multiuser VR Experiences with Both HMD and Non-HMD Users. Sensors 21, 2 (2021), 397.10.3390/s21020397Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Published Online: 2022-04-01
Published in Print: 2022-04-26

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston