Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 28, 2018

Metabolic syndrome, leptin-insulin resistance and uric acid: a trinomial foe for Algerian city-dweller adolescents’ health

Hamida Bouhenni, Hadjer Daoudi, Haidar Djemai, Abdelkader Rouabah, Damien Vitiello and Leila Rouabah

Abstract

Background

Adolescence is one of the critical periods where increased risk for long-term obesity-related complications is an important health concern. This highlights the need to perform early diagnostics based on precise biomarkers to decrease the risk of complications in adolescents with obesity.

Objective

To determine the relationships between serum levels of uric acid (UA), leptin and insulin with metabolic syndrome (MS) components in Algerian adolescents.

Subjects

Nondiabetic adolescents (n = 204).

Methods

Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measurements were performed using standardized techniques. Blood samples were taken for determination of glycemia, triglyceridemia, uricemia, cholesterolemia, leptinemia and insulinemia.

Results

The rate of MS among an excess weight group was 17.4% [95% confidence interval (CI)]. Serum levels of UA, leptin and insulin were significantly higher in the excess weight group compared to a normal weight group (279.4 ± 86.05 vs. 204.9 ± 50.34 μmol/L and 25.65 ± 14.01 vs. 4.09 ± 2.60 μg/L, p < 0.001; 24.58 ± 13.85 vs. 13.34 ± 6.41 μIU/L, p < 0.05). Serum levels of UA, leptin and insulin were significantly higher in adolescents with MS compared to those without MS (304.86 ± 111.41 vs. 224.72 ± 77.81 μmol/L, 30.26 ± 12.46 vs. 16.93 ± 14.97 μg/L and 30.91 ± 17.30 vs. 18.71 ± 10.14 μIU/L, p < 0.05, respectively). Significant correlations were found between UA and leptin with waist circumference (r = 0.50 and 0.76), diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.58 and 0.43), triglycerides (r = 0.42 and 0.35) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = −0.36 and −0.35).

Conclusion

Serum levels of UA and leptin may be useful biomarkers for early diagnosis of the risk of MS in our Algerian adolescent population.

  1. Conflict of interest statement: The author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

References

[1] Pedrosa C, Oliveira BM, Albuquerque I, Simoes-Pereira C, Vaz-de-Almeida MD, Correia F. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in 7–9 years-old Portuguese schoolchildren. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2010;2:40.10.1186/1758-5996-2-40Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[2] Dietz WH. Critical periods in childhood for the development of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:955–9.10.1093/ajcn/59.5.955Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[3] Kelishadi R. Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:62–76.10.1093/epirev/mxm003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[4] Khader Y, Batieha A, Jaddou H, El-Khateeb M, Ajlouni K. Metabolic syndrome and its individual components among Jordanian children and adolescents. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2010;2010:316170.10.1186/1687-9856-2010-316170Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[5] Mehairi AE, Khouri AA, Naqbi MM, Muhairi SJ, Maskari FA, Nagelkerke N, et al. Metabolic syndrome among Emirati adolescents: a school-based study. PLoS One. 2013;8:e56159.10.1371/journal.pone.0056159Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] Ford ES, Li C, Zhao G, Pearson WS, Mokdad AH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adolescents using the definition from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:587–9.10.2337/dc07-1030Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[7] Benmohammed K, Valensi P, Benlatreche M, Nguyen MT, Benmohammed F, Paries J, et al. Anthropometric markers for detection of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Diabetes Metab. 2015;41:138–44.10.1016/j.diabet.2014.07.001Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[8] Cook S, Weitzman M, Auinger P, Nguyen M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype in adolescents: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:821–7.10.1001/archpedi.157.8.821Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[9] Weiss R, Dziura J, Burgert TS, Tamborlane WV, Taksali SE, Yeckel CW, et al. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2362–74.10.1056/NEJMoa031049Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[10] Shaibi GQ, Goran MI. Examining metabolic syndrome definitions in overweight Hispanic youth: a focus on insulin resistance. J Pediatr. 2008;152:171–6.10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.08.010Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[11] Cardoso AS, Gonzaga NC, Medeiros CC, Carvalho DF. Association of uric acid levels with components of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight or obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2013;89:412–8.10.1016/j.jped.2012.12.008Search in Google Scholar

[12] Feig DI, Johnson RJ. Hyperuricemia in childhood primary hypertension. Hypertension. 2003;42:247–52.10.1161/01.HYP.0000085858.66548.59Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[13] Lausten-Thomsen U, Christiansen M, Louise Hedley P, Esmann Fonvig C, Stjernholm T, Pedersen O, et al. Reference values for serum leptin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2016;76:561–7.10.1080/00365513.2016.1210226Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[14] Ryden M, Hrydziuszko O, Mileti E, Raman A, Bornholdt J, Boyd M, et al. The adipose transcriptional response to insulin is determined by obesity, not insulin sensitivity. Cell Rep. 2016;16:2317–26.10.1016/j.celrep.2016.07.070Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[15] UNICEF. The state of the world’s children 11 – adolescence an age of opportunity. New York, NY: UNICEF, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[16] UNICEF. How to weigh and measure children: assessing the nutritional status of young children in household surveys. New York, NY: UNICEF, 1986.Search in Google Scholar

[17] McCarthy HD, Jarrett KV, Crawley HF. The development of waist circumference percentiles in British children aged 5.0–16.9 y. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55:902–7.10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601240Search in Google Scholar

[18] WHO. Growth reference data for 5–19 years – BMI-for-age (5–19 years). 2007. Available from: http://www.who.int/growthref/who2007_bmi_for_age/en/. Accessed on September 9, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Kaufman F, Tajima N, Silink M, Arslanian S, et al. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents – an IDF consensus report. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007;8:299–306.10.1111/j.1399-5448.2007.00271.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[20] Knopfholz J, Disserol CC, Pierin AJ, Schirr FL, Streisky L, Takito LL, et al. Validation of the friedewald formula in patients with metabolic syndrome. Cholesterol. 2014;2014:261878.10.1155/2014/261878Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[21] WHO. Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity (ECHO). 2016. Available from: http://www.who.int/end-childhood-obesity/final-report/en/. Accessed on January 14, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Figueroa Sobrero A, Evangelista P, Kovalskys I, Digon P, Lopez S, Scaiola E, et al. Cardio-metabolic risk factors in Argentine children. A comparative study. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2016;10(1 Suppl 1):S103–9.10.1016/j.dsx.2015.10.003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[23] Yuan H, Yu C, Li X, Sun L, Zhu X, Zhao C, et al. Serum uric acid levels and risk of metabolic syndrome: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:4198–207.10.1210/jc.2015-2527Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[24] Liang S, Hu Y, Liu C, Qi J, Li G. Low insulin-like growth factor 1 is associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and metabolic syndrome in Chinese nondiabetic obese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15:112.10.1186/s12944-016-0275-7Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[25] Johnson RJ, Segal MS, Sautin Y, Nakagawa T, Feig DI, Kang DH, et al. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:899–906.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[26] Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Despres JP, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease risk. Circulation. 2010;121:1356–64.10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.876185Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[27] Pereira MA. Sugar-sweetened and artificially-sweetened beverages in relation to obesity risk. Adv Nutr. 2014;5:797–808.10.3945/an.114.007062Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[28] Obeidat AA, Ahmad MN, Haddad FH, Azzeh FS. Leptin and uric acid as predictors of metabolic syndrome in jordanian adults. Nutr Res Pract. 2016;10:411–7.10.4162/nrp.2016.10.4.411Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[29] Catli G, Kume T, Tuhan HU, Anik A, Calan OG, Bober E, et al. Relation of serum irisin level with metabolic and antropometric parameters in obese children. J Diabetes Complications. 2016;30:1560–5.10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.07.019Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[30] Habib SA, Saad EA, Elsharkawy AA, Attia ZR. Pro-inflammatory adipocytokines, oxidative stress, insulin, Zn and Cu: interrelations with obesity in Egyptian non-diabetic obese children and adolescents. Adv Med Sci. 2015;60:179–85.10.1016/j.advms.2015.02.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[31] Nourbakhsh M, Nourbakhsh M, Gholinejad Z, Razzaghy-Azar M. Visfatin in obese children and adolescents and its association with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2015;75:183–8.10.3109/00365513.2014.1003594Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[32] Rambhojan C, Bouaziz-Amar E, Larifla L, Deloumeaux J, Clepier J, Plumasseau J, et al. Ghrelin, adipokines, metabolic factors in relation with weight status in school-children and results of a 1-year lifestyle intervention program. Nutr Metab. 2015;12:43.10.1186/s12986-015-0039-9Search in Google Scholar

[33] Matsubara M, Chiba H, Maruoka S, Katayose S. Elevated serum leptin concentrations in women with hyperuricemia. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2002;9:28–34.10.5551/jat.9.28Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[34] Abdullah AR, Hasan HA, Raigangar VL. Analysis of the relationship of leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, insulin, and uric acid to metabolic syndrome in lean, overweight, and obese young females. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009;7:17–22.10.1089/met.2008.0045Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[35] Liu M, He Y, Jiang B, Wu L, Yang S, Wang Y, et al. Association between serum uric acid level and metabolic syndrome and its sex difference in a Chinese community elderly population. Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:754678.10.1155/2014/754678Search in Google Scholar

[36] Nakagawa T, Hu H, Zharikov S, Tuttle KR, Short RA, Glushakova O, et al. A causal role for uric acid in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:625–31.10.1152/ajprenal.00140.2005Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-05-02
Accepted: 2017-06-20
Published Online: 2018-03-28

©2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston