Skip to content
Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 8, 2020

Effect of Bhramari pranayama practice on simple reaction time in healthy adolescents – a randomized control trial

Maheshkumar Kuppusamy ORCID logo, Dilara Kamaldeen, Ravishankar Pitani, Julius Amaldas, Padmavathi Ramasamy, Poonguzhali Shanmugam and Venkateswaran Sankaralingam Thirupathy

Abstract

Objectives

The improvement in the/reaction time is important, as it is an indicator of cognitive function. Therefore, there is a need, especially for adolescents in the form of techniques or courses that can improve the reaction time. Yoga was found to cause a better improvement in the health of the individuals. The present study intended to show the effects of Bhramari pranayama (Bhr.P) on reaction time in the healthy adolescents.

Methods

Of the 730 potential subjects screened, 520 apparently healthy adolescents randomly assigned to either the Bhr.P group (n-260) or control group (n-260). Bhr.P group practiced the bhramari pranayama for 3 days in a week for 6 months. The Auditory Reaction Time (ART) and the Visual Reaction Time (VRT) were assessed before and after Bhr.P pranayama practice.

Results

Bhr.P group shows significant shortening of response time in both VRT (from 267.13 ± 52.65 to 249.87 ± 39.41 ms) and ART (from 237.42 ± 48.12 to 227.91 ± 34.60 ms) after 6 months of Bhr.P practice. In control group subjects, no such significant changes were found (p > 0.05).

Conclusions

Shortening of RT implies an improvement in the information processing and reflexes. This beneficial effect of Bhr.P on reaction time can be used for improving cognitive function in the adolescents for their academic performances.


Corresponding author: Dr. Maheshkumar Kuppusamy , BNYS, M.Sc, Ph.D. Assistant Medical Officer/Lecturer Grade II, Government Yoga and Naturopathy Medical college and Hospital, Chennai, 600106, India, E-mail:

Funding source: Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research (SRIHER)

Acknowledgment

This study was sponsored by grants-in-aid by Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research (SRIHER) for perusing Ph.D. under Chancellor Sri N. P. V Ramasamy Udayar research fellowship. We express our sincere gratitude and thanks to all our students participated in this study.

  1. Competing interests: Authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

1. Senel, O, Eroglu, H. Correlation between reaction time and speed in elite soccer players. Age 2006;21:3–32.Search in Google Scholar

2. Sen, A, Jensen, AR, Sen, A, Arora, I. Correlation between reaction time and intelligence in psychometrically similar groups in America and India. Appl Res Men Retar 1983;4:139–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/0270-3092(83)90006-1.Search in Google Scholar

3. Hayes, M, Chase, S. Prescribing yoga. Prim Care Clinics Office Pract 2010;37:31–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2009.09.009.Search in Google Scholar

4. Kuppusamy, M, Kamaldeen, D, Pitani, R, Amaldas, J. Immediate effects of Bhramari pranayama on resting cardiovascular parameters in healthy adolescents. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:CC17–9. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/19202.7894.Search in Google Scholar

5. Bhavanani, AB, Ramanathan, M, Balaji, R, Pushpa, D. Differential effects of uninostril and alternate nostril pranayamas on cardiovascular parameters and reaction time. Int J Yoga 2014;7:60–5. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.123489.Search in Google Scholar

6. Shavanani, A, Udupa, K. Acute effect of Mukh bhastrika (a yogic bellows type breathing) on reaction time. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2003;47:297–300. https://doi.org/10.2466/2F22.25.PMS.117x10z4.Search in Google Scholar

7. Kuppusamy, M, Kamaldeen, D, Pitani, R, Amaldas, J, Shanmugam, P. Effects of Bhramari Pranayama on health–a systematic review. J Tradit Complement Med 2018;8:11–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.02.003.Search in Google Scholar

8. Pramanik, T, Pudasaini, B, Prajapati, R. Immediate effect of a slow pace breathing exercise Bhramari Pranayama on blood pressure and heart rate. Nepal Med Coll J 2010;12:154–7. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2008.0440.Search in Google Scholar

9. Kuppusamy, M, Dilara, K, Ravishankar, P, Julius, A. Effect of Bhrāmarī Prāṇāyāma practice on pulmonary function in healthy adolescents: a randomized control study. Ancient Sci Life 2017;36:196. https://doi.org/10.4103/asl.ASL_220_16.Search in Google Scholar

10. Vialatte, FB, Bakardjian, H, Prasad, R, Cichocki, A. EEG paroxysmal gamma waves during Bhramari Pranayama: a yoga breathing technique. Conscious Cogn 2009;18:977–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2008.01.004.Search in Google Scholar

11. Saraswati, SS, Hiti, J. Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha Bihar. India: Yoga Publication Trust, Munger, Bihar, India; 1996.Search in Google Scholar

12. Kumar, AP, Kumar, KM, Padmavathi, R. Validation of PC 1000 Hz reaction timer with biopac MP36 for recording simple reaction time. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2019;63:138–44.Search in Google Scholar

13. Maheshkumar, K, Dilara, K, Maruthy, K, Sundareswaren, L. Validation of PC-based sound card with biopac for digitalization of ECG recording in short-term HRV analysis. North Am J Med Sci 2016;8:307–11. https://doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.187150.Search in Google Scholar

14. Vijayalakshmi, P, Surendiran, A. Effect of slow and fast Pranayams on reaction time and cardiorespiratory variables. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005;49:313–8. PMID: 16440849.Search in Google Scholar

15. Ramanathan, M, Bhavanani, AB. Immediate effect of Chandra and Suryanadi Pranayamas on cardiovascular parameters and reaction time in a geriatric population. Int J Physiol 2014;2:59. https://doi.org/10.5958/j.2320-608X.2.1.013.Search in Google Scholar

16. Thombre, D, Balakumar, B, Nambinarayanan, T, Thakur, S, Krishnamurthy, N, Chandrabose, A. Effect of yoga training on reaction time, respiratory endurance and muscle strength. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1992;36:229–33. .Search in Google Scholar

17. Tandon, O. Average evoked potentials--clinical applications of short latency responses. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;42:172–88. PMID: 10225045.Search in Google Scholar

18. Cohen, DL, Wintering, N, Tolles, V, Townsend, RR, Farrar, JT, Galantino, ML, Newberg, AB. Cerebral blood flow effects of yoga training: preliminary evaluation of 4 cases. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:9–14. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2008.0008.Search in Google Scholar

19. Hall, JE. Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology e-Book: Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015.Search in Google Scholar

20. Telles, S, Pal, S, Gupta, RK, Balkrishna, A. Changes in reaction time after yoga bellows-type breathing in healthy female volunteers. Int J yoga 2018;11:224–30. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijoys.IJOY_70_17.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-11-24
Accepted: 2019-12-25
Published Online: 2020-06-08

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston