Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 7, 2021

Cardiovascular health indicators in soccer exercise during adolescence: systematic review

Heloyse Elaine Gimenes Nunes, Evelinn Amarilha Faria, Paula Felippe Martinez and Silvio Assis de Oliveira-Júnior ORCID logo

Abstract

This review analyzed the studies that evaluated cardiovascular health indicators (blood pressure, waist circumference, heart rate, glucose index and lipid blood) in recreational soccer players during adolescence, and identify possible associated factors. The search was performed in the electronic databases (PubMED, SciELO, LILACS, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science). Inclusion criteria were: population composed of children and/or adolescents (10–19 years or average age up to 19 years); studies adolescents engaged in recreational soccer regularly and observational studies with cross-sectional or longitudinal design. The process of analysis of studies involved reading titles, abstracts and full texts. After these phases, seven articles were eligible. Regarding the design, all studies were cross-sectional. Of the total studies included, five presented moderate methodological quality values and two presented low methodological quality values, according to National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute instrument. The most cardiovascular health indicators used in recreational soccer players during adolescence was waist circumference; three studies analyzed heart rate, two evaluated blood pressure, one analyzed insulin resistance and none of the included studies analyzed lipid profile. Factors associated were analyzed in four studies, being that sedentary time and body mass index (BMI) present association with at least one indicator of cardiovascular health.


Corresponding author: Silvio Assis de Oliveira-Júnior, Laboratório de Estudo do Músculo Estriado (LEME), Instituto Integrado de Saúde (INISA/UFMS), Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Av. Costa e Silva, s/n, Cidade Universitária, Universitário, s/n, 19070-900, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, Phone: +55 67 3345 7768, Fax: +55 67 3345 7967, E-mail:

Funding source: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul

Funding source: Fundação de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento do Ensino, Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul

Award Identifier / Grant number: 71/700.126/2018

Funding source: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior

  1. Research funding: This research was funded by Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Fundação de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento do Ensino, Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (FUNDECT), and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) – Financial Code 001.

References

1. Abrignani, MG, Lucà, F, Favilli, S, Benvenuto, M, Rao, CM, Di Fusco, SA, et al.. Lifestyles and cardiovascular prevention in childhood and adolescence. Pediatr Cardiol 2019;40:1113–25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00246-019-02152-w. Search in Google Scholar

2. Friedemann, C, Heneghan, C, Mahtani, K, Thompson, M, Perera, R, Ward, AM. Cardiovascular disease risk in healthy children and its association with body mass index: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2012;345:e4759. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e4759. Search in Google Scholar

3. Ortega, FB, Ruiz, JR, Castillo, MJ, Sjöström, M. Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health. Int J Obes 2008;32:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803774. Search in Google Scholar

4. Rodrigues, NLA, Lima, LHO, Carvalho, ES, Vera, PVS, Frota, KMG, Lopes, MVO, et al.. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in adolescents. Invest Educ Enferm 2015;33:315–24. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.iee.v33n2a14. Search in Google Scholar

5. McGill, HCJr, McMahan, CA, Gidding, SS. Preventing heart disease in the 21st century: implications of the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study. Circulation 2008;117:1216–27. https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.107.717033. Search in Google Scholar

6. Jardim, TV, Gaziano, TA, Nascente, FM, Carneiro, CS, Morais, P, Roriz, V, et al.. Multiple cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents from a middle-income country: prevalence and associated factors. PLoS One 2018;13:e0200075. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200075. Search in Google Scholar

7. Kumar, B, Robinson, R, Till, S. Physical activity and health in adolescence. Clin Med 2015;15:267–72. https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.15-3-267. Search in Google Scholar

8. Whatnall, MC, Collins, CE, Callister, R, Hutchesson, MJ. Associations between unhealthy diet and lifestyle behaviours and increased cardiovascular disease risk in young overweight and obese women. Healthcare 2016;4:E57. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare4030057. Search in Google Scholar

9. Savva, SC, Tornaritis, M, Savva, ME, Kourides, Y, Panagi, A, Silikiotou, N, et al.. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index. Int J Obes 2000;24:1453–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801401. Search in Google Scholar

10. Morrison, JA, Glueck, CJ, Wang, P. Childhood risk factors predict cardiovascular disease, impaired fasting glucose plus type 2 diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure 26 years later at mean age 38: the Princeton-lrc follow-up study. Metabolism 2012;61:531–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2011.08.010. Search in Google Scholar

11. Juhola, J, Magnussen, CG, Viikari, JS, Kähönen, M, Hutri-Kähönen, N, Jula, A, et al.. Tracking of serum lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index from childhood to adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. J Pediatr 2011;159:584–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.03.021. Search in Google Scholar

12. Saydah, S, Bullard, KM, Imperatore, G, Geiss, L, Gregg, EW. Cardiometabolic risk factors among US adolescents and young adults and risk of early mortality. Pediatrics 2013;131:e679-86. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-2583. Search in Google Scholar

13. Lee, IM, Skerrett, PJ. Physical activity and all-cause mortality: what is the dose-response relation? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:S459–71. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200106001-00016. Search in Google Scholar

14. Pate, RR. The evolving definition of physical fitness. Quest 1988;40:174–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1988.10483898. Search in Google Scholar

15. Landry, BW, Driscoll, SW. Physical activity in children and adolescents. PM&R 2012;4:826–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.09.585. Search in Google Scholar

16. Bangsbo, J, Hansen, PR, Dvorak, J, Krustrup, P. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity. Br J Sports Med 2015;49:568–76. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094781. Search in Google Scholar

17. Cayres-Santos, SU, Urban, JB, Barbosa, MF, Lemes, IR, Kemper, HCG, Fernandes, RA. Sports participation improves metabolic profile in adolescents: ABCD growth study. Am J Hum Biol 2019;32:e23387. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23387. Search in Google Scholar

18. Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG, PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:264–9. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-151-4-200908180-00135. Search in Google Scholar

19. World Health Organization‎. Young people’s health - a challenge for society: report of a WHO study group on young people and “Health for All by the Year 2000” [‎meeting held in Geneva from 4 to 8 June 1984]‎. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO); 1986. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/41720. Search in Google Scholar

20. Maron, BJ, Chaitman, BR, Ackerman, MJ, de Luna, AB, Corrado, D, Crosson, JE, et al.. AHA scientific statement: recommendations for physical activity and recreational sports participation for young patients with genetic cardiovascular diseases. Circulation 2004;109:2807–16. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000128363.85581.e1. Search in Google Scholar

21. Maron, BJ, Zipes, DP. 36th Bethesda conference: eligibility recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:1312–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2005.02.006. Search in Google Scholar

22. Gutin, B, Owens, S. The influence of physical activity on cardiometabolic biomarkers in youths: a review. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2011;23:169–85. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.23.2.169. Search in Google Scholar

23. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Assessing cardiovascular risk: systematic evidence review from the risk assessment work group; 2013. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/sites/default/files/media/docs/risk-assessment.pdf [Accessed 24 Mar 2020]. Search in Google Scholar

24. Xia, Q, Fan, D, Yang, X, Li, X, Zhang, X, Wang, M, et al.. Progression rate of ankylosing spondylitis in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine 2017;96:e5960. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000005960. Search in Google Scholar

25. Fenton, SA, Duda, JL, Barrett, T. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness. J Sports Sci 2016;34:239–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1048273. Search in Google Scholar

26. Fernandes, L, Oliveira, T, Oliveira, J, Rebelo, A, Ribeiro, JC, Brito, J. Young school children engaged with regular after-school soccer practice present improved physical fitness and cardiovascular risk. Rev Bras Futebol 2014;07:73–81. Search in Google Scholar

27. Gutiérrez, R, Aldea, L, Cavia, MM, Alonso-Torre, SR. Relación entre la composición corporal y la práctica deportiva en adolescentes. Nutr Hosp 2015;32:336–45. Search in Google Scholar

28. Fernandes, L, Oliveira, J, Soares-Miranda, L, Rebelo, A, Brito, J. Regular football practice improves autonomic cardiac function in male children. Asian J Sports Med 2015;6:e24037. https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.24037. Search in Google Scholar

29. Lucini, D, de Giacomi, G, Tosi, F, Malacarne, M, Respizzi, S, Pagani, M. Altered cardiovascular autonomic regulation in overweight children engaged in regular physical activity. Heart 2013;99:376–81. https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2012-302616. Search in Google Scholar

30. Notarnicola, A, Maccagnano, G, Chierico, A, Tafuri, S, Moretti, B. Relationship between anthropometric characteristics and playing position in youth soccer. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J 2018;8:502–6. Search in Google Scholar

31. Bezrati, I, Ben Fradj, MK, Ouerghi, N, Feki, M, Chaouachi, A, Kaabachi, N. Vitamin D inadequacy is widespread in Tunisian active boys and is related to diet but not to adiposity or insulin resistance. Libyan J Med 2016;11:312–58. https://doi.org/10.3402/ljm.v11.31258. Search in Google Scholar

32. Neeland, IJ, McGuire, DK, Eliasson, B, Ridderstråle, M, Zeller, C, Woerle, HJ, et al.. Comparison of adipose distribution indices with gold standard body composition assessments in the EMPA-REG H2H SU trial: a body composition sub-study. Diabetes Ther 2015;6:635–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13300-015-0146-7. Search in Google Scholar

33. Taylor, RW, Jones, IE, Williams, SM, Goulding, A. Evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and the conicity index as screening tools for high trunk fat mass, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, in children aged 3–19 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:490–5. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/72.2.490. Search in Google Scholar

34. Ekelund, U, Luan, J, Sherar, LB, Esliger, DW, Griew, P, Cooper, A, et al.. Association of moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. J Am Med Assoc 2012;307:704–12. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.156. Search in Google Scholar

35. Ashwell, M, Hsieh, SD. Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2005;56:303–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480500195066. Search in Google Scholar

36. Baker-Smith, CM, Flinn, SK, Flynn, JT, Kaelber, DC, Blowey, D, Carroll, AE, et al.. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2018;142:e20182096. Search in Google Scholar

37. Rosner, B, Cook, N, Portman, R, Daniels, S, Falkner, B. Determination of blood pressure percentiles in normal-weight children: some methodological issues. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:653–66. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwm348. Search in Google Scholar

38. Lopes, PFF, Oliveira, MIB, André, SMS, do Nascimento, DLA, Silva, CSS, Rebouças, GM, et al.. Clinical applications of heart rate variability. Rev Neurocienc 2013;21:600–3. https://doi.org/10.34024/rnc.2013.v21.8171. Search in Google Scholar

39. Kawaguchi, LYA, Nascimento, ACP, Lima, MS, Frigo, L, Júnior, ARP, Tierra-Criollo, CJ, et al.. Characterization of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity in sedentary individuals and male athletes. Rev Bras Med Esporte 2007;13:231–6. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1517-86922007000400004. Search in Google Scholar

40. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Circulation 1996;93:1043–65. Search in Google Scholar

41. Dalla Pozza, R, Kleinmann, A, Bechtold, S, Kozlik-Feldmann, R, Daebritz, S, Netz, H. Calculating sympathovagal balance from heart rate variability: are there alternatives in adolescents? Acta Cardiol 2006;61:307–12. https://doi.org/10.2143/ac.61.6.2017960. Search in Google Scholar

42. Pérez-Bey, A, Segura-Jiménez, V, Fernández-Santos, JDR, Esteban-Cornejo, I, Gómez-Martínez, S, Veiga, OL, et al.. The role of adiposity in the association between muscular fitness and cardiovascular disease. J Pediatr 2018;199:178–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.03.071. Search in Google Scholar

43. Cai, L, Wu, Y, Cheskin, LJ, Wilson, RF, Wang, Y. Effect of childhood obesity prevention programmes on blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2014;15:933–44. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12227. Search in Google Scholar

44. Lima, RA, Andersen, LB, Soares, FC, Kriemler, S. The causal pathway effects of a physical activity intervention on adiposity in children: the KISS Study cluster randomized clinical trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2020;30:1685–91. Search in Google Scholar

45. Yan, Y, Liu, J, Zhao, X, Cheng, H, Huang, G, Mi, J, et al.. Regional adipose compartments confer different cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Mayo Clin Proc 2019;94:1974–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.05.026. Search in Google Scholar

46. Hamer, M, O’Donovan, G, Batty, GD, Stamatakis, E. Estimated cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood and cardiometabolic health in adulthood: 1970 British Cohort Study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2020;30:932–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13637. Search in Google Scholar

47. Sullivan, GM, Feinn, R. Using effect size-or why the P value is not enough. J Grad Med Educ 2012;4:279–82. https://doi.org/10.4300/jgme-d-12-00156.1. Search in Google Scholar

48. Saunders, TJ, Tremblay, MS, Mathieu, ME, Henderson, M, O’Loughlin, J, Tremblay, A, et al.. Associations of sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in children with a family history of obesity. PLoS One 2013;8:e79143. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079143. Search in Google Scholar

49. Bauer, KW, Marcus, MD, El Ghormli, L, Ogden, CL, Foster, GD. Cardio-metabolic risk screening among adolescents: understanding the utility of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to height ratio. Pediatr Obes 2015;10:329–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.267. Search in Google Scholar

50. Tong, Y, Han, E. Associations between body shape, body adiposity and other indices: a case study of hypertension in Chinese children and adolescents. Ann Hum Biol 2019;46:460–6. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2019.1688864. Search in Google Scholar

51. Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Department of arterial hypertension. VII Brazilian guidelines for hypertension. Rev Bras Hipertens 2016;17:4–62. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-12-16
Accepted: 2021-03-07
Published Online: 2021-04-07

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston