Heterogeneous photocatalysis refers to the series of oxidation and reduction reactions on a semiconductor surface by the electrons and holes generated by absorption of light by the catalyst. This method is widely used for the degradation of dyes and their mixtures present in the textile effluent, and involves two main aspects, viz. a photocatalyst, and a photoreactor. TiO2 nanoparticles are well explored and among the best known photocatalysts used worldwide. Annular slurry bubble-column reactor is a commonly used photoreactor for dye(s) degradation. This research paper explores the effects of different parameters like air-flow rate, photocatalyst loading, and initial dye concentration on the dye degradation in an annular slurry bubble-column photoreactor. The results showed that the best dye degradation efficiencies were reported at an aeration rate of 1.7 × 10−4 m3/s and at a catalyst loading of 1.5 kg/m3. Higher the initial concentration of dye, the greater is the time taken for complete degradation and mineralization. A kinetic-invariant method, which is based on the dimensionless representation of existing data to predict the new experimental results, is used to develop a semi-empirical reactor performance equation. It can be used to predict the concentration of dye undergoing degradation in the photocatalytic reactor at any time without a need for further experimentation.
Funding source: IIT-Delhi
Author contributions: Guncha Munjal- Conceptualization, Experimentation, Methodology, Formal analysis, Validation, Writing – Original Draft, Ashok N Bhaskarwar – Guidance and Supervision, Amita Chaudhary – Review & Editing, Visualization.
Research funding: IIT-Delhi provided an Institute Fellowship to Ms. Guncha Munjal during 2010–2015.
Conflict of interest statement: Not applicable.
Ethics approval: Not applicable.
Consent to participate: All participators have given consent.
Consent for publication: All participators have given consent.
Adegboyega Salu, O., M. Adams, P. K. J. Robertson, L. S. Wong, and C. McCullagh. 2011. “Remediation of Oily Wastewater from an Interceptor Tank Using a Novel Photocatalytic Drum Reactor.” Desalination and Water Treatment 26 (1–3): 87–91, doi:https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2011.2114.Search in Google Scholar
Chen, C. C., C. S. Lu, Y. C. Chung, and J. L. Jan. 2007. “UV Light Induced Photodegradation of Malachite Green on TiO 2 Nanoparticles.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 141: 520–28, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.07.011.Search in Google Scholar
Chong, M. N., B. Jin, C. W. K. Chow, and C. Saint. 2010. “Recent Developments in Photocatalytic Water Treatment Technology: A Review.” Water Research 44 (10): 2997–3027, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.02.039.Search in Google Scholar
Ernawati, L., R. A. Wahyuono, H. Widiyandari, D. D. Risanti, A. W. Yusariarta, Rebeka, and V. Sitompul. 2020. “Experimental Data of CaTiO3 Photocatalyst for Degradation of Organic Pollutants (Brilliant Green Dye) – Green Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetic Study.” Data in Brief 32: 106099, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106099.Search in Google Scholar
Habibi, M. H., A. Hassanzadeh, and S. Mahdavi. 2005. “The Effect of Operational Parameters on the Photocatalytic Degradation of Three Textile Azo Dyes in Aqueous TiO2 Suspensions.” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 172 (1): 89–96, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2004.11.009.Search in Google Scholar
Hameed, B. H., and T. W. Lee. 2009. “Degradation of Malachite Green in Aqueous Solution by Fenton Process.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 164: 468–72.10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.08.018Search in Google Scholar
Houas, A., H. Lachheb, M. Ksibi, E. Elaloui, C. Guillard, and J-M. Herrmann. 2001. “Photocatalytic Degradation Pathway of Methylene Blue in Water.” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 31 (2): 145–57, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-3373(00)00276-9.Search in Google Scholar
Ibrahim, U., and A. Halim. 2008. “Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Contaminants over Titanium Dioxide : A Review of Fundamentals, Progress and Problems.” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews 9: 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochemrev.2007.12.003.Search in Google Scholar
Konstantinou, I. K., and T. A. Albanis. 2004. “TiO2-assisted Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dyes in Aqueous Solution: Kinetic and Mechanistic Investigations: A Review.” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 49 (1): 1–14, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2003.11.010.Search in Google Scholar
Lachheb, H., E. Puzenat, A. Houas, M. Ksibi, E. Elaloui, C. Guillard, and J. M. Herrmann. 2002. “Photocatalytic Degradation of Various Types of Dyes (Alizarin S, Crocein Orange G, Methyl Red, Congo Red, Methylene Blue) in Water by UV-Irradiated Titania.” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 39 (1): 75–90, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-3373(02)00078-4.Search in Google Scholar
Lakshmi, S., R. Renganathan, and S. Fujita. 1995. “Study on TiO2-Mediated Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue.” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 88 (2–3): 163–7, https://doi.org/10.1016/1010-6030(94)04030-6.Search in Google Scholar
Matthews, R. W. 1989. “Photocatalytic Oxidation and Adsorption of Methylene Blue on Thin Films of Near-Ultraviolet-Illuminated TiO2.” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1: Physical Chemistry in Condensed Phases 85 (6): 1291–302, doi:https://doi.org/10.1039/F19898501291.Search in Google Scholar
Mozia, S., A. W. Morawski, M. Toyoda, and T. Tsumura. 2009. “Effect of Process Parameters on Photodegradation of Acid Yellow 36 in a Hybrid Photocatalysis – Membrane Distillation System.” Chemical Engineering Journal 150 (1): 152–9, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2008.12.012.Search in Google Scholar
Nagajyothi, P. C., S. V. Prabhakar Vattikuti, K. C. Prabhakar Vattikuti, K. Yoo, J. Shim, and T. V. M. Sreekanth. 2020. “Green Synthesis: Photocatalytic Degradation of Textile Dyes Using Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles-Latest Trends and Advancements.” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 50 (24): 2617–723, doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2019.1705103.Search in Google Scholar
Nan, M., B. Jin, H. Y. Zhu, C. W. K. Chow, and C. Saint. 2009. “Application of H-Titanate Nanofibers for Degradation of Congo Red in an Annular Slurry Photoreactor.” Chemical Engineering Journal 150 (1): 49–54, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2008.12.002.Search in Google Scholar
Neolaka, Y. A. B., S. N. Zakarias, Y. Lawa, J. N. Naat, D. P. Benu, A. Chetouani, H. Elmsellem, H. Darmokoesoemo, and H. S. Kusuma. 2019. “Simple Design and Preliminary Evaluation of Continuous Submerged Solid Small-Scale Laboratory Photoreactor (CS4PR) Using TiO2/NO3-@TC for Dye Degradation.” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 7 (6): 103482, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2019.103482.Search in Google Scholar
Yang, H., and H. Cheng. 2007. “Controlling Nitrite Level in Drinking Water by Chlorination and Chloramination.” Separation and Purification Technology 56 (3): 392–6, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2007.05.036.Search in Google Scholar
© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston