Accessible Requires Authentication Pre-published online by De Gruyter September 14, 2021

Value addition study on coker kero for producing alpha olefin and alkyl benzene

Deependra Tripathi, Raj K. Singh, Kamal Kumar and Udai P. Singh


Coker kero stream is obtained from delayed coking which contains saturates with alpha olefins and PNA compounds which was physicochemical characterised. The fractions present in coker kero may be used further for value added products such as alkyl benzene and naphthalene etc. The study described potential of coker kero via aromatics and non-aromatics separation by using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), acetonitrile and methanol as solvents of different polarity. Methanol imparts best colour improvement as per ASTM D-1500. Beside this, adsorption study on coker kero was performed using fuller’s earth, chalk powder, red ochre and wood-stick’s ash as adsorbents. The adsorption study suggested that fuller’s earth not only separate aromatics and non-aromatics form coker kero, but also acts as a better adsorbent than graphitic carbon (activated charcoal) and is found suitable for colour improvement comparatively. This study inferred the separation of polar components, improvement in the colour, odour and established the stable fuel. FT-IR study suggested that N-methyl Pyrrolidone gives better results comparatively other solvents. HC22 type analysis of coker kero raffinate and extract phase confirm the sharp extraction of coker kero feed using N-Methyl pyrrolidone as it is a good solvent for extraction of aromatics. GCMS and HRMS compositional analysis successfully performed for the coker kero and it is separated aromatic and non-aromatic fractions.

Corresponding author: Deependra Tripathi, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247 667, Uttarakhand, India; and Analytical Science Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, 248 005, Uttarakhand, India, E-mail: ; and Udai P. Singh, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247 667, Uttarakhand, India, E-mail:


DT thanks the Director, CSIR-IIP and Director, IIT Roorkee for giving the permission to do the doctoral research work. We thank the analytical sciences division of CSIR-IIP for providing the analysis.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


Altgelt, K. H. and T. H. Guow. 1979. Chromatography in Petroleum Analysis. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D1322. 2019. Standard Test Method for Smoke Point of Kerosene and Aviation Turbine Fuel. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D1500. 2012. Standard Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products ASTM International. West Conshohocken, PA. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D2425. 2019. Standard Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Middle Distillates by Mass Spectrometry. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D4294. 2016. Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D4530. 2020. Standard Test Method for Determination of Carbon Residue (Micro Method). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D56. 2016. Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D7042. 2021. Standard Test Method for Dynamic Viscosity and Density of Liquids by Stabinger Viscometer (and the Calculation of Kinematic Viscosity). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM D86. 2017. Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Search in Google Scholar

Emam, E. A. 2018. “Clay Adsorption Perspective on Petroleum Refining Industry.” Industrial Engineering 2: 19, Search in Google Scholar

Gambrill, C. M., D. R. Long, H. D. McBride, B. J. Heinrich, D. O. Alford, R. T. Edwards, J. W. Johnson, R. E. Borup, J. A. Wronka, J. Walker, and G. A. Boulet. 1963. “Petroleum. Introduction.” Analytical Chemistry 35 (5): 111–42, Search in Google Scholar

Gallegos, E. J., J. W. Green, L. P. Lindeman, R. L. LeTourneau, and R. M. Teeter. 1967. “Petroleum Group-type Analysis by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.” Analytical Chemistry 39 (14): 1833–8, Search in Google Scholar

Khanna, M. K., S. M. Nanoti, G. Prasad, B. R. Nautiyal, D. Paul, B. S. Rawat, M. O. Garg, A. K. Saxena, and P. Kumar. 2004. “Process for Extraction of Aromatics from Petroleum Streams.” United States patent US 2, 004, 018, 275, 0A1. Search in Google Scholar

Linjinsky, W., I. Domsky, and C. R. Raha. 1963. “A Short Method of Testing Petroleum Waxes for the Presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.” Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 46 (4): 725–31, Search in Google Scholar

Reinold, A. J., R. F. Streiff, and F. D. Rossini. 1953. Hydrocarbons from Petroleum. New York: Reinhold. Search in Google Scholar

Rodgers, R. P., T. M. Schaub, and A. G. Marshall. 2005. “Petroleomics: MS Returns to its Roots.” Analytical Chemistry 77 (1): 20A–27A, Search in Google Scholar

Riazi, M.-R. 2005. Characterization and Properties of Petroleum Fractions, 1st ed. West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials. Search in Google Scholar

Robert, L. M. and A. E. Hirschler. 1944. “Process for Separating Aromatic Hydrocarbons from a Hydrocarbon Mixture.” United States patent US 24, 494, 02A. Search in Google Scholar

Roussis, S. G. and W. P. Fitzgerald. 2001. “Hydrocarbon Compound Type Analysis by Mass Spectrometry:  on the Replacement of the All-Glass Heated Inlet System with a Gas Chromatograph.” Energy & Fuels 15 (2): 477–86, Search in Google Scholar

Seifert, W. K., R. M. Teeter, R. M. Howells, W. G., and J. R Cantow. 1969. “Preparative Thin-Layer Chromatography and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Crude Oil Carboxylic Acids.” Analytical Chemistry 41 (6): 786–95, Search in Google Scholar

Sharma, Y. K., I. D. Singh, K. P. Bhatt, and K. M. Agrawal. 1997. “Studies on Gum Formation Tendencies of Middle Distillate Diesel Fuels.” In Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Long Term Storage Stability & Handling of Liquid Fuels, Canada, 699. Search in Google Scholar

Teeter, R. M. 1985. “High‐resolution Mass Spectrometry for Type Analysis of Complex Hydrocarbon Mixtures.” Mass Spectrometry Reviews 4 (1): 123–43, Search in Google Scholar

Washburn, H. W., H. F Wiley, S. M. Rock, and C. E. Berry. 1945. “Mass Spectrometry.” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Analytical Edition 17 (2): 74–81, Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-05-08
Accepted: 2021-08-31
Published Online: 2021-09-14

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston