Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 7, 2021

Solar powered battery charging scheme for light electric vehicles (LEVs)

  • Kamal Singh , Anjanee Kumar Mishra ORCID logo EMAIL logo , Bhim Singh and Kuldeep Sahay


This work is targeted to design an economical and self-reliant solar-powered battery charging scheme for light electric vehicles (LEV’s). The single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) is utilized to enhance the performance of solar power and battery charging at various solar irradiances. Various unique attributes of a SEPIC converter offer the effective charging arrangement for a self-reliant off-board charging system. Further, the continuous conduction mode (CCM) function of the converter minimizes the elementary stress and keeps to maintain the minimum ripples in solar output parameters. A novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) approach executed in the designed system requires only the battery current to track the maximum power point (MPP) at various weather situations. Both the simulated and real-time behaviors of the developed scheme are examined utilizing a battery pack of 24 V and 100 Ah ratings. These responses verify the appropriateness of the designed system for an efficient off-board charging system for LEV’s.

Corresponding author: Anjanee Kumar Mishra, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI, USA, E-mail:

Funding source: Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India

Award Identifier / Grant number: RP02979

Funding source: J. C. Bose Fellowship

Award Identifier / Grant number: RP03128


This work is finically sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India, under a project under Grant Number: RP02979 (Reliable and Efficient System for Community) Energy Solutions-(Indo-UK RESCUES Project) and in part by J. C. Bose Fellowship under Grant RP03128.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: This work is finically sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India, under a project under Grant Number: RP02979 (Reliable and Efficient System for Community) Energy Solutions-(Indo-UK RESCUES Project) and in part by J. C. Bose Fellowship under Grant RP03128.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


1. Tran, VT, Islam, MR, Muttaqi, KM, Sutanto, D. An efficient energy management approach for a solar-powered EV battery charging facility to support distribution grids. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 2019;55:6517–26. in Google Scholar

2. Badawy, MO, Yilmaz, AS, Sozer, Y, Husain, I. Parallel power processing topology for solar PV applications. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 2014;50:1245–55. in Google Scholar

3. Anand, I, Senthilkumar, S, Biswas, D, Kaliamoorthy, M. Dynamic power management system employing a single-stage power converter for standalone solar PV applications. IEEE Trans Power Electron 2018;33:10352–62. in Google Scholar

4. Zhang, Y, Cai, L. Dynamic charging scheduling for EV parking lots with photovoltaic power system. IEEE Access 2018;6:56995–7005. in Google Scholar

5. Chandra Mouli, GR, Schijffelen, J, van den Heuvel, M, Kardolus, M, Bauer, P. A 10 kW solar-powered bidirectional EV charger compatible with Chademo and COMBO. IEEE Trans Power Electron 2019;34:1082–98. in Google Scholar

6. Vikas, KS, Raviteja Reddy, B, Abijith, SG, Sindhu, MR. Controller for charging electric vehicles at workplaces using solar energy. In: Proc. International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP). Chennai, India: IEEE; 2019:862–6 pp.10.1109/ICCSP.2019.8697992Search in Google Scholar

7. Harakawa, T, Tujimoto, T. Efficient solar power equipment for electric vehicles: improvement of energy conversion efficiency for charging electric vehicles. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Vehicle Electronics Conference 2001. IVEC 2001. (Cat. No.01EX522). Tottori, Japan: IEEE; 2001:11–16 pp.10.1109/IVEC.2001.961718Search in Google Scholar

8. Patil, D, Dubey, RN, Kulkarni, C, Nadaf, F, Nair, D, Ramesh, GB. Utilization of solar power for automated automotive and locomotive charging. In: Proc. International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). Belgaum, India: IEEE; 2020:1–3 pp.10.1109/INCET49848.2020.9154114Search in Google Scholar

9. Mishra, SK, Nayak, KK, Rana, MS, Dharmarajan, V. Switched-boost action based multiport converter. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 2019;55:964–75. in Google Scholar

10. Nasir, M, Anees, M, Khan, HA, Khan, I, Xu, Y, Guerrero, JM. Integration and decentralized control of standalone solar home systems for off-grid community applications. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 2019;55:7240–50. in Google Scholar

11. Andrade, AMSS, Schuch, L, Martins, MLDS. Photovoltaic battery charger based on the Zeta converter: analysis, design and experimental results. In: Proc. IEEE 24th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE). Buzios: IEEE; 2015:379–84 pp.10.1109/ISIE.2015.7281498Search in Google Scholar

12. Grosso, M, Lena, D, Bocca, A, Macii, A, Rinaudo, S. Energy-efficient battery charging in electric vehicles with solar panels. In: Proc. Second Int. Forum on Research and Technologies for Society and Industry Leveraging a better tomorrow. Bologna, Italy: IEEE; 2016:1–5 p.10.1109/RTSI.2016.7740569Search in Google Scholar

13. Chiang, SJ, Shieh, HJ, Chen, MC. Modeling and control of PV charger system with SEPIC converter. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 2009;56:4344–53. in Google Scholar

14. Killi, M, Samanta, S. An adaptive voltage-sensor-based MPPT for photovoltaic systems with sepic converter including steady-state and drift analysis. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 2015;62:7609–19. in Google Scholar

15. Dasgupta, N, Pandey, A, Mukerjee, AK. Voltage-sensing-based photovoltaic MPPT with improved tracking and drift avoidance capabilities. Proc Sol Energy Mater Sol Cell 2008;92:1552–8.10.1016/j.solmat.2008.06.020Search in Google Scholar

16. Mishra, AK, Singh, B. Self-governing single-stage photovoltaic water pumping system with voltage balancing control for a four-phase SRM drive. IET Electr Power Appl 2020;14:119–30. in Google Scholar

17. Mishra, AK, Singh, B. Grid interactive single-stage solar powered water pumping system utilizing improved control technique. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 2020;11:304–14. in Google Scholar

18. Tian, N, Fang, H, Wang, Y. Real-time optimal lithium-ion battery charging based on explicit model predictive control. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 2021;17:1318–30. in Google Scholar

19. Li, Y, Xiong, B, Vilathgamuwa, DM, Wei, Z, Xie, C, Zou, C. Constrained ensemble Kalman filter for distributed electrochemical state estimation of lithium-ion batteries. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 2021;17:240–50. in Google Scholar

20. Mishra, AK, Singh, B. Design of solar-powered agriculture pump using a new configuration of the dual-output buck-boost converter. IET Renew Power Gener 2018;12:1640–50. in Google Scholar

21. Singh, K, Mishra, AK, Singh, B, Sahay, K. Cost-effective solar powered battery charging system for light electric vehicles (LEVs). In: Proc. International Conference on Computing, Power and Communication Technologies (GUCON). New Delhi, India: NCR; 2019:988–94 pp.Search in Google Scholar

22. El Khateb, A, Rahim, NA, Selvaraj, J, Uddin, MN. Fuzzy-logic-controller-based SEPIC converter for maximum power point tracking. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 2014;50:2349–58. in Google Scholar

23. Killi, M, Samanta, S. Voltage-sensor-based MPPT for stand-alone PV systems through voltage reference control. IEEE J Emerg Sel Top Power Electron 2019;7:1399–407. in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-09-06
Accepted: 2020-12-31
Published Online: 2021-01-07

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 7.6.2023 from
Scroll to top button