Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 2, 2015

Effects of the Addition of Grape Seed Powder on the Thermorheological Properties of Frying Batters

Ece Cagdas and Seher Kumcuoglu

Abstract

The effects of the addition of grape seed powder (GSP) on the thermorheological properties of frying batters were investigated in this study. Thermal properties, including gelatinization (TG) and melting (Tm) temperatures, as well as enthalpies (ΔHG, ΔHm), were determined by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The addition of GSP decreased the TG and Tm as the GSP levels increased. When compared with the control batter, the addition of GSP significantly decreased the apparent viscosity and viscoelastic modules (G′, G′′). The mechanical spectra of batters carried out at 15–80°C showed a transition from fluid-like to gel-like behavior. The batter pick-up values were found to be directly proportional to the batter viscosity. Both water retention capacities (WRC) and consistency index values (K) of the batters were significantly affected by the GSP addition and temperature (p < 0.05). Grape seeds have health-promoting components on a scientific basis; thus, this study provides helpful results in the development of novel frying batters.

Acknowledgments

This research was conducted at Ege University and the authors are indebted to the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) with project number 110 O 512 for providing financial support.

References

1. LeeS, NgPKW, SteffeJF. Effects of controlled mixing on the frying batters at different percent solids. J Food Process Eng2002;25:38194. Search in Google Scholar

2. LeeSM, YooJ, InglettGE, LeeS. Particle size fractionation of high-amylose rice (goami 2) flour as an oil barrier in a batter-coated fried system. Food Bioprocess Technol2013;6:72633. Search in Google Scholar

3. JeonS, LimJ, InglettGE, LeeS. Effect of enzymatic treatments on the rheological and oil-resisting properties of wheat flour-based frying batters. J Food Eng2013;115:21519. Search in Google Scholar

4. OnyangoC, MutungiC, UnbehendG, LindhauerGM. Rheological and textural properties of sorghum-based formulations modified with variable amounts of native or pregelatinised cassava starch. LWT-Food Sci Technol2011;44:68793. Search in Google Scholar

5. Modzelewska-KapitulaM. Effects of tomato powder on color, lipid oxidation and sensory properties of comminuted meat products. J Food Quality2012;35:32330. Search in Google Scholar

6. KimJ, LimJ, BaeIY, ParkHG, LeeHG, LeeS. Particle size effect of Lentınus edodes mushroom (chamsong-ı) powder on the physicochemical, rheological, and oil-resisting properties of frying batters. J Texture Stud2010;41:38195. Search in Google Scholar

7. DoganSF, SahinS, SumnuG. Effects of soy and rice flour addition on batter rheology and quality of deep-fat fried chicken nuggets. J Food Eng2005;71:12732. Search in Google Scholar

8. NasiriFD, MohebbiM, YazdiFT, KhodaparastMHH. Kinetic modeling of mass transfer during deep fat frying of shrimp nugget prepared without a pre-frying step. Food Bioprod Process2011;89:2417. Search in Google Scholar

9. AmboonW, TulyathanV, TattiyakulJ. Effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on rheological properties, coating pickup, and oil content of rice flour-based batters. Food Bioprocess Technol2012;5:6018. Search in Google Scholar

10. AdedejiAA, LiuL, NgadiMO. Microstructural evaluation of deep-fat fried chicken nugget batter coating using confocal laser scanning microscopy. J Food Eng2011;102:4957. Search in Google Scholar

11. SanzT, SalvadorA, FiszmanSM. Effect of concentration and temperature on properties of methylcellulose-added batters application to battered, fried seafood. Food Hydrocolloid2004;18:12731. Search in Google Scholar

12. SanzT, SalvadorA, VelezG, MunozJ, FiszmanSM. Influence of ingredients on the thermo-rheological behavior of batters containing methylcellulose. Food Hydrocolloid2005;19:86977. Search in Google Scholar

13. XueJ, NgadiM. Rheological properties of batter systems formulated using different flour combinations. J Food Eng2006;77:33441. Search in Google Scholar

14. SanzT, SalvadorA, FiszmanSM. Performance of three different types of resistant starch in fried battered food. Eur Food Res Technol2008;227:217. Search in Google Scholar

15. PurcellS, WangYJ, SeoHS. Enzyme-modified starch as an oil delivery system for bake-only chicken nuggets. J Food Sci2014a;79:8029. Search in Google Scholar

16. PurcellS, WangYJ, SeoHS. Application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets. J Food Sci2014b;79:C810C815. Search in Google Scholar

17. BaixauliR, SanzT, SalvadorA, FiszmanSM. Effect of the addition of dextrin or dried egg on the rheological and textural properties of batters for fried foods. Food Hydrocolloid2003;17:30510. Search in Google Scholar

18. AlbertA, SalvadorA, HoughG, FiszmanSM. Influence of outer layer formulation on the sensory properties of microwaved breaded nuggets. Int J Food Prop2014;17:82941. Search in Google Scholar

19. BarbutS. Effects of milk powder and its components on texture, yield, and color of a lean poultry meat model system. Poult Sci2010;89:13204. Search in Google Scholar

20. Primo-MartínC. Cross-linking of wheat starch improves the crispness of deep-fried battered food. Food Hydrocolloid2012;2012:538. Search in Google Scholar

21. ChenHH, KangHY, ChenSD. The effects of ingredients and content on the rheological properties of batters and physical properties of crusts in fried foods. J Food Eng2008;88:4554. Search in Google Scholar

22. LambergI, HallstormB, OlssonH. Fat uptake in potato drying/frying process. LWT-Food Sci Technol1990;23:295300. Search in Google Scholar

23. SaguyIS, PinthusEJ. Oil uptake during deep fat frying: factors and mechanism. Food Technol1995;4:1425. Search in Google Scholar

24. LeeS, InglettGE. Functional characterization of steam jet cooked β-glucan-rich. J. Food Sci2006;71:30813. Search in Google Scholar

25. XueJ, NgadiM. Effects of methyl cellulose, xhantan gum and carboxymethylcellulose on thermal properties of batter systems formulated with different flour combinations. Food Hydrocolloid2009;23:28695. Search in Google Scholar

26. KimSY, JeongSM, ParkWP, NamKC, AhnDU, LeeSC. Effect of heating conditions of grape seeds on the antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts. Food Chem2006;97:4729. Search in Google Scholar

27. Davidof-PardoG, ArozarenaI, Marin-ArroyoMR. Stability of polyphenolic extracts from grape seeds after thermal treatments. Eur Food Res Technol2011;232:21120. Search in Google Scholar

28. WeberHA, HodgesAE, GuthrieJR, O’BrienBM, RobaughD, ClarkAP, et al. Comparison of proanthocyanidins in commercial antioxidants:  grape seed and pine bark extracts. J Agr Food Chem2007;55:14856. Search in Google Scholar

29. ChenSD, ChenHH, ChaoYC, LinRS. Effect of batter formula on qualities of deep-fat and microwave fried fish nuggets. J Food Eng2009;95:35934. Search in Google Scholar

30. XueJ, NgadiM. Thermal properties of batter systems formulated by combinations of different flours. LWT-Food Sci Technol2007;40:145965. Search in Google Scholar

31. SanzT, SalvadorA. Rheology of batters used in frying. In: SahinS, SumnuSG, editors. Advances in deep fat frying of foods.Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009. Search in Google Scholar

32. CaballeroPA, BonetA, RosellCM, GomezM. Effect of microbial transglutaminase on the rheological and thermal properties of insect damaged wheat flour. J Cereal Sci2005;42:93100. Search in Google Scholar

33. Salmenkallio-MarttilaM, RoininenK, AutioK, LahteenmakiL. Effects of gluten and transglutaminase on microstructure, sensory characteristics and instrumental texture of oat bread. Agric Food Sci2004;13:13850. Search in Google Scholar

34. ChenCS, ChangCY, HsiehCJ. Improving the texture and colour of fried products. In: RossellJB, editor. Frying: improving quality.Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing and CRC Press, 2001. Search in Google Scholar

35. BertonB, ScherJ, VillierasF, HardyJ. Measurement of hydration capacity of wheat flour: influence of composition and physical characteristics. Powder Technol2002;128:32631. Search in Google Scholar

36. GamonpilasC, PongjaruvatW, MethacanonP, SeetapanN, FuongfuchatA, KlaikherdA. Effects of cross-linked tapioca starches on batter viscosity and oil absorption in deep-fried breaded chicken strips. J Food Eng2013;114:2628. Search in Google Scholar

37. KimBK, ChunYG, ChoAR, ParkDJ. Reduction in fat uptake of doughnut by microparticulated wheat bran. Int J Food Sci Nutr2012;63:98795. Search in Google Scholar

38. FuBX, SapirsteinHD, BushukW. Induced disaggregation/solubilization of gliadin and glutenin proteins in water. J Cereal Sci1996;24:2416. Search in Google Scholar

39. BelitzHD, GroschW, SchieberleP. Food chemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009. Search in Google Scholar

40. WangX, ChoiSG, KerrWL. Water dynamics in white bread and starch gels as affected by water and gluten content. LWT-Food Sci Technol2004;37:37784. Search in Google Scholar

41. NasiriFD, MohebbiM, YazdiFT, KhodaparastMHD. Effects of soy and corn flour addition on batter rheology and quality of deep fat-fried shrimp nuggets. Food Bioprocess Technol2012;5:123845. Search in Google Scholar

42. AdedejiAA, NgadiMO. Microstructural properties of deep fat fried chicken nuggets coated with different batter formulation. Int J Food Prop2011;14:6883. Search in Google Scholar

43. LlorcaE, HernandoI, Perez-MunueraI, FiszmanSM, LluchMA. Effect of frying on the microstructure of frozen battered squid rings. Eur Food Res Technol2001;231:44855. Search in Google Scholar

44. LlorcaE, HernandoI, Perez-MunueraQA, LarreaV, LluchMA. The structure of starch granules in fried battered products. Food Hydrocolloid2007;21:140712. Search in Google Scholar

45. LeeJS, KimBK, KimKH, ParkDJ. Preparation of low-fat uptake doughnut by dry particle coating technique. J Food Sci2008;73:E13742. Search in Google Scholar

46. SuarezRB, CampanoneLA, GarciaMA, ZariyzkyNE. Comparison of the deep frying process in coated and uncoated dough systems. J Food Eng2008;84:38393. Search in Google Scholar

47. BarutcuI, SahinS, SumnuG. Effects of microwave frying and different flour types addition on the microstructure of batter coatings. J Food Eng2009;95:68492. Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2015-4-2
Published in Print: 2015-4-1

©2015 by De Gruyter