Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 20, 2018

Development and Characterization of a Novel Ecofriendly Biodegradable Whey Protein Concentrate Film with nano-SiO2

  • Mahbobeh Hassannia-Kolaee EMAIL logo , Iman Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi and Maryam Hassannia-Kolaee

Abstract

Nowadays, researchers have attracted to substitute petroleum-based materials by biopolymers due to limitation of petroleum resources and environmental concerns. Nano-fillers were used to reduce some drawbacks of biopolymers as packaging materials. Nanocomposite films composed of 5 % (wt% dry base) whey protein concentrate (WPC), 30 % glycerol, (1 %, 3 %, and 5 %) nano-SiO2 (NS). The films were prepared by solution casting method. Tensile strength of WPC/NS nanocomposites increased around 50 % compared to WPC by increasing NS content up to 3 %. While elongation at break (EB) decreased around 20 % compared to WPC, simultaneously. But at high NS content (5 %), EB decreased to 17.93 %. Sensibility of WPC/NS nanocomposites film to water and water vapor permeability was decreased with increasing NS content up to 3 %. NS content was an effective factor on the color properties of the films. SEM micrographs revealed uniform distribution of NS into polymer matrix at low NS content. Consequently, crystallinity and thermal properties of the film were improved by adding NS content as compared to WPC film. It seems NS can improve some drawbacks of WPC such as mechanical weakness, hydrophilic properties as a packaging material and allowing the development of biodegradable bionanocomposite.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the University of Zanjan, Islamic Azad University (Varamin-Pishva ‌Branch), and to the Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council for providing financial aids for this research.

References

[1] Hassannia-Kolaee M, Khodaiyan F, Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi I. Modification of functional properties of pullulan–whey protein bionanocomposite films with nanoclay. J Food Sci and Technol. 2016;53:1294–302.10.1007/s13197-015-1778-3Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[2] Zolfi M, Khodaiyan F, Mousavi M, Hashemi M. The improvement of characteristics of biodegradable films made from kefiran–whey protein by nanoparticle incorporation. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;109:118–25.10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.03.018Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[3] Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi I, Khodaiyan F, Mousavi M, Yousefi H. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of kefiran biopolymer film. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;74:343–50.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.11.038Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[4] Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhia I, Khodaiyan F, Mousavi M, Yousefi H. Green bionanocomposite based on kefiran and cellulose nanocrystals produced from beer industrial residues. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;77:85–91.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.02.055Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[5] Hassannia-Kolaee M, Khodaiyan F, Pourahmad R, Shahabi-Gahfarrokhi I. Development of ecofriendly bionanocomposite: whey protein isolate/pullulan films with nano-SiO2. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;86:139–44.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.01.032Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] Goudarzi V, Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi I, Babaei-Ghazvini A. Preparation of ecofriendly UV-protective food packaging material by starch/TiO2 bio-nanocomposite: characterization. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;95:306–13.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.11.065Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[7] Zink J, Wyrobnik T, Prinz T, Schmid M. Physical, chemical and biochemical modifications of protein-based films and coatings: an extensive review. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:1376.10.3390/ijms17091376Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[8] Coltelli MB, Wild F, Bugnicourt E, Cinelli P, Lindner M, Schmid M, et al. State of the art in the development and properties of protein-based films and coatings and their applicability to cellulose based products: an extensive review. Coatings. 2016;6:1–59.10.3390/coatings6010001Search in Google Scholar

[9] Ferreira C, Nunes C, Delgadillo I, Lopez-Da-Silva J. Characterization of chitosan-whey protein films at acid PH. Food Res Int. 2009;42:807–13.10.1016/j.foodres.2009.03.005Search in Google Scholar

[10] Osés J, Fabregat-Vázquez M, Pedroza-Islas R, Tomás A, Cruz-Orea A. Development and characterization of composite edible films based on whey protein isolate and mesquite gum. J Food Eng. 2009;92:56–62.10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.10.029Search in Google Scholar

[11] Zolfi M, Khodaiyan F, Mousavi M, Hashemi M. Development and characterization of the kefiran-whey protein isolate-TiO2 nanocomposite films. Int J Biol Macromol. 2014;65:340–45.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.01.010Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[12] Cinelli P, Schmid M, Bugnicourt E, Wildner J, Bazzichi A, Anguillesi A, et al. Whey protein layer applied on biodegradable packaging film to improve barrier properties while maintaining biodegradability. Poly Degrad and Stab. 2014;108:151–5710.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2014.07.007Search in Google Scholar

[13] Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi I, Khodaiyan F, Mousavi M, Yousefi H. Preparationof UV-protective kefiran/NanoZnO nanocomposite: physical and mechanical properties. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;72:41–46.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.07.047Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[14] Müller K, Bugnicourt E, Latorre M, Jorda M, Echegoyen Sanz Y, Lagaron J, et al. Review on the processing and properties of polymer nanocomposites and nanocoatings and their applications in the packaging, automotive and solar energy fields. Nanomater. 2017;7:74.10.3390/nano7040074Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[15] Xiong HG, Tang SW, Tang H, Zou P. The structure and properties of a starch-based biodegradable film. Carbohydr Polym. 2008;71:263–68.10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.05.035Search in Google Scholar

[16] Chaichana E, Jongsomjit B, Praserthdam P. Effect of nano SiO2 particle size on the formation of LLDPE/SiO2 nanocomposite synthesized via the in situ polymerization with metallocene catalyst. Chem Eng Sci. 2007;62:899–905.10.1016/j.ces.2006.10.005Search in Google Scholar

[17] Yao K, Caia J, Liu M, Yan Y, Xiong H, Tang S. Structure and properties of starch/PVA/nano-SiO2 hybrid films. Carbohydr Polym. 2011;86:1784–89.10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.07.008Search in Google Scholar

[18] Viver-Escoto J. Silica nanoparticles, prepration, properties, and uses. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2012.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Buzea C, Pacheco I, Robbie K. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: sources and toxicity. Biointerphases. 2007;2:17–71.10.1116/1.2815690Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[20] Almasi H, Ghanbarzadeh B, Entezami A. Physicochemical properties properties of starch-CMC-nanoclay biodegradable films. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;46:1–5.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2009.10.001Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[21] ASTM. Standard test methods for water vapor transmission of material E96. In: Annual book of ASTM. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials; 1995.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Piermaria J, Bosch A, Pinotti A, Yantorno O, Garcia MA, Abraham AG. Kefiran films plasticized with sugars and polyols: water vapor barrier and mechanical properties in relation to their microstructure analyzed by ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy. Food Hydrocolloids. 2011;25:1261–69.10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.11.024Search in Google Scholar

[23] ASTM. Standard test method for transition temperatures and enthalpies of fusion and crystallization of polymers by differential scanning calorimetry D3418-03. In: Annual book of ASTM. Philadelphia: American Society of Testing Materials; 2004.Search in Google Scholar

[24] ASTM. Standard test method for tensile properties of thin plastic sheeting D882. In: Annual book of ASTM. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2001.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Trovatti E, Fernandes SCM, Rubatat L, Da Silva Perez D, Freire CSR, Silvestre AJD, et al. Pullulan–nanofibrillated cellulose composite films with improved thermal and mechanical properties. Composites Sci and Technol. 2012;72:1556–61.10.1016/j.compscitech.2012.06.003Search in Google Scholar

[26] Hu H, Xin J, Hu H, Chan A, He L. Glutaraldehyde–chitosan and poly (vinyl alcohol) blends, and fluorescence of their nano-silica composite films. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;91:305–13.10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.08.038Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[27] Zhou J, Wang S, Gunasekaran S. Preparation and characterization of whey protein film incorporated with tio2 nanoparticles. J Food Sci. 2009;74:50–55.10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01270.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[28] Tang X, Alavi S, Herald T. Effects of plasticizers on the structure and properties of starch–clay nanocomposite films. Carbohydr Polym. 2008;74:552–58.10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.04.022Search in Google Scholar

[29] Li Y, Jiang Y, Liu F, Ren F, Zhao G, Leng X. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2/whey protein isolate nanocomposite film. Food Hydrocolloid. 2011;25:1098–104.10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.10.006Search in Google Scholar

[30] McHugh TH, Krochta JM. Milk protein based edible films and coatings. Food Technol. 1994;48:97–103.Search in Google Scholar

[31] McHugh TH, Avena-Bustillos RD, Krochta JM. Hydrophilic edible films: modified procedure for water vapor permeability and explanation of thickness effects. J Food Sci. 1993;58:899–903.10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb09387.xSearch in Google Scholar

[32] Weizman O, Dotan A, Nir Y, Ophir A. Modified whey protein coatings for improved gas barrier properties of biodegradable films. Polymr Advan Technol. 2016;28:261–27010.1002/pat.3882Search in Google Scholar

[33] McHugh T, Aujard J, Krochta J. Plasticized whey protein edible films: water vapor permeability properties. J Food Sci. 1994;59:416–19.10.1111/j.1365-2621.1994.tb06980.xSearch in Google Scholar

[34] Zolfi M, Khodaiyan F, Mousavi M, Hashemi M. Characterization of new biodegradable WPC/clay nanocomposite films based on kefiran exopolysaccharide. J Food Sci and Technol. 2015;52:3485–93.10.1007/s13197-014-1407-6Search in Google Scholar

[35] Jiang Y, Li Y, Chai Z, Leng X. Study of the physical properties of whey protein isolate and gelatin composite films. J Agri and Food Chem. 2010;58:5100–08.10.1021/jf9040904Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Received: 2017-3-26
Revised: 2018-1-8
Accepted: 2018-1-22
Published Online: 2018-2-20

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 5.3.2024 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/ijfe-2017-0098/html
Scroll to top button