Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 12, 2021

Increased coercivity in recalcined barium ferrite–magnetite nanocomposites

Mohammad Jafar Molaei, Abolghasem Ataie and Shahram Raygan


In this research, mixtures of barium ferrite and graphite were milled in a high-energy mechanical milling machine. The effect of recalcination on the magnetic properties of the milled samples was studied. Phase analysis, phase transformations at high temperatures, particle size distribution, magnetic properties, and particle morphology were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, hot stage X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, vibrating sample magnetometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A magnetic nanocomposite of BaFe12O19/Fe3O4 formed after 20 and 40 h milling. The average particle size for the 20 and 40 h milled samples reached 106 and 68 nm, respectively. Recalcination of the milled samples resulted in barium ferrite structure recovery. The decreased particle size due to the milling and subsequent recalcination results in increased coercivity values. The coercivity for the milled and calcined sample could increase more than 40% compared to as-received barium ferrite and reaches 3935 Oe for the sample calcined at 1050 °C.

Dr. Mohammad Jafar Molaei Shahrood University of Technology 3619995161, Shahrood Iran Tel.: +98 2332392204


[1] H. Kojima, E.P. Wohlfarth (Eds.): Ferromagnetic Materials, Vol. 3, North-Holland, New York, (1982) 210.Search in Google Scholar

[2] J. Liu, P. Liu, X. Zhang, D. Pan, P. Zhang, M. Zhang: Ultrason. Sonochem. 23 (2015) 46. DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.08.00110.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.08.001Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[3] M.J. Pourhosseini Asl, A. Ghasemi, G.R. Gordani: J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 28 (2015) 109. DOI:10.1007/s10948-014-2814-710.1007/s10948-014-2814-7Search in Google Scholar

[4] L. Li, K. Chen, H. Liu, G. Tong, H. Qian, B. Hao: J. Alloys Compd. 557 (2013) 11. DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.12.14810.1016/j.jallcom.2012.12.148Search in Google Scholar

[5] D. Lisjak, S. Ovtar, J. Kovač, L. Gregoratti, B. Aleman, M. Amati, M. Fanetti, D. Makovec: Appl. Surf. Sci. 305 (2014) 366. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.03.09210.1016/j.apsusc.2014.03.092Search in Google Scholar

[6] Song, Fuzhan, Xiangqian Shen, Mingquan Liu, Jun Xiang: Solid State Sci. 12, no. 9 (2010) 1603. DOI:10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2010.07.00710.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2010.07.007Search in Google Scholar

[7] A. Baykal, M. Demir, B. Ünal, H. Sözeri, M.S. Toprak: J. Super-cond. Novel Magn. 29 (2016) 199. DOI:10.1007/s10948-015-3232-110.1007/s10948-015-3232-1Search in Google Scholar

[8] A. Ataie, S.E. Zojaji: J. Alloys Compd. 431 (2007), 331. DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.05.08510.1016/j.jallcom.2006.05.085Search in Google Scholar

[9] G.F. Liu, R.H. Fan, K.L. Yan, X.A. Wang, K. Sun, C.B. Cheng, Q. Hou: Mater. Sci. Forum. 815 (2015) 141. DOI:10.4028/ in Google Scholar

[10] K.S. Martirosyan, E. Galstyan, S.M. Hossain, Yi-Ju Wang, D. Lit-vinov: Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(1) (2011) 8. DOI:10.1016/j.mseb.2010.08.00510.1016/j.mseb.2010.08.005Search in Google Scholar

[11] G. Liu, Z. Zhang, F. Dang, C. Cheng, C. Hou, S. Liu: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 412 (2016) 55. DOI:10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.03.08110.1016/j.jmmm.2016.03.081Search in Google Scholar

[12] A. Ataie, I.R. Harris, C.B. Ponton, “Hexaferrite materials", US Patent: 5858265 (1999).Search in Google Scholar

[13] A. Ataie, C.B. Ponton, I.R. Harris: J. Mater. Sci. 31 (1996) 5521. DOI:10.1007/BF0115932610.1007/BF01159326Search in Google Scholar

[14] A. Yourdkhani, S.A. Seyyed Ebrahimi, H.R. Koohdar: J. Alloys Compd. 470 (2009) 561. DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.03.02110.1016/j.jallcom.2008.03.021Search in Google Scholar

[15] C. Suryanarayana, N. Al-Aqeeli: Prog. Mater. Sci. 58–4 (2013) 383. DOI:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2012.10.00110.1016/j.pmatsci.2012.10.001Search in Google Scholar

[16] M.A. Nowroozi, H. Shokrollahi: Adv. Powder Technol. 24 –6 (2013) 1100. DOI:10.1016/j.apt.2013.03.01610.1016/j.apt.2013.03.016Search in Google Scholar

[17] M. Zandrahimi, M. Delshad Chermahini, M.H. Mirbeik: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 32–6 (2011) 669. DOI:10.1016/j.jmmm.2010.09.02210.1016/j.jmmm.2010.09.022Search in Google Scholar

[18] F. Sánchez-De Jesús, A.M. Bolarín-Miró, C.A. Cortés-Escobedo, R. Valenzuela, S. Ammar: Ceram. Int. 40 (3) (2014) 4033. DOI:10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.08.05610.1016/j.ceramint.2013.08.056Search in Google Scholar

[19] D. Chen, I. Harward, J. Baptist, S. Goldman, Z. Celinski: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 395(1) (2015) 350. DOI:10.1016/j.jmmm.2015.07.07610.1016/j.jmmm.2015.07.076Search in Google Scholar

[20] Y. Su, H. Su, Y. Zhu, F. Wang, J. Du, W. Xia, A. Yan, J.P. Liu, J. Zhang: J. Alloys Compd. 647 (2015) 375. DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.06.15210.1016/j.jallcom.2015.06.152Search in Google Scholar

[21] G.K. Williamson, W.H. Hall: Acta Metall. 1–1 (1953) 22. DOI:10.1016/0001-6160(53)90006-610.1016/0001-6160(53)90006-6Search in Google Scholar

[22] M.J. Molaei, A. Ataie, S. Raygan, S.J. Picken: Appl. Phys. A 123, no. 6 (2017) 437. DOI:10.1007/s00339-017-1034-y10.1007/s00339-017-1034-ySearch in Google Scholar

[23] Y. Kashiwaya, K. Ishii: ISIJ Int. Vol. 44, No. 12 (2004) 1981. DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational.44.198110.2355/isijinternational.44.1981Search in Google Scholar

[24] A. Goldman: Modern ferrite technology, 2nd Ed. Springer, USA (2006) 166.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Deger, Caner, Perihan Aksu, Fikret Yildiz: Trans. Magn. (2016) 2301204. DOI 10.1109/TMAG.2016.2593915.10.1109/TMAG.2016.2593915Search in Google Scholar

[26] Deger, Caner, Mustafa Ozdemir, Fikret Yildiz: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 408 (2016) 13. DOI:10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.01.09110.1016/j.jmmm.2016.01.091Search in Google Scholar

[27] M.J. Molaei, A. Ataie, S. Raygan, M.R. Rahimipour, S.J. Picken, F.D. Tichelaar, E. Legarra, F. Plazaola: Mater. Charact. 63 (2 0 1 2) 8 3. DOI:10.1016/j.matchar.2011.11.00410.1016/j.matchar.2011.11.004Search in Google Scholar

[28] M.J. Molaei, A. Ataie, S. Raygan, S.J. Picken, F.D. Tichelaar: J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 25 (2012) 519. DOI:10.1007/s10948-011-1322-210.1007/s10948-011-1322-2Search in Google Scholar

[29] M.J. Molaei, A. Ataie, S. Raygan, S.J. Picken, F.D. Tichelaar: Ceram. Int. 38 (4) (2012) 3155. DOI:10.1016/j.ceramint.2011.12.01810.1016/j.ceramint.2011.12.018Search in Google Scholar

[30] M.J. Molaei, A. Ataie, S. Raygan, S.J. Picken E. Mendes, F.D. Tichelaar: Powder Technol. 221 (2012) 292. DOI:10.1016/j.powtec.2012.01.01510.1016/j.powtec.2012.01.015Search in Google Scholar

[31] M.J. Molaei, A. Ataie, S. Raygan, S.J. Picken: Mater. Chem. Phys. 219 (2018): 155. DOI:10.1016/j.matchemphys.2018.07.02710.1016/j.matchemphys.2018.07.027Search in Google Scholar

[32] M.J. Molaei, A. Ataie, S. Raygan, S.J. Picken: Mater. Charact. 101 (2015) 78. DOI:10.1016/j.matchar.2015.01.00610.1016/j.matchar.2015.01.006Search in Google Scholar

[33] C. Chen, O. Hitakami, S. Okamoto, Y. Shimada: J. Appl. Phys. 86(4) (1999) 2161. DOI:10.1063/1.37102410.1063/1.371024Search in Google Scholar

[34] N. Idayanti, T. Kristiantoro, A. Septiani, I. Kartika: MATEC Web Conf. (2017) 01011. 10.1051/matecconf/201710101011. DOI:10.1051/matecconf/20171010101110.1051/matecconf/201710101011Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-08-11
Accepted: 2021-02-19
Published Online: 2021-05-12
Published in Print: 2021-05-31

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston, Germany

Scroll Up Arrow