Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 18, 2021

Preparation and characterization of dried cellulose nanofibrils

Jianping Ni, Chen Gong, Zhenghua Su and Chao Tian


One of the main manufacturing challenges is to obtain dried cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) so that they can be cost effectively transported to customers. This work presents a study on using two methods of drying: freeze drying and spray drying; these dried CNFs were then characterized. The dried CNFs from either freeze drying or spray drying could not recover their original state after simple re-dispersion in water. Compared to spray dried CNFs, the microstructure of the freeze dried CNFs remained in a better shape. This was because the packing of nanofibrils as a result of freeze drying was not as tight as that from spray drying. It was demonstrated by the lower final mass residue and crystallinity of the freeze-dried CNFs, which led to better re-dispersion in water. X-ray diffractometry proved the occurrence of aggregation/hornification of the dried CNFs with increased crystallinity. Time-dependent sedimentation confirmed that the dried CNFs were incapable of forming stable water-re-dispersible suspensions.

Chao Tian, Ph D China National Pulp and Paper Research Institute Co., LTD Building 2, No. 4, Qiyang Road Chaoyang District Beijing, 100102 P. R. China Tel.: +86-10-64778086 Fax: +86-10-64778084 Web:

Funding statement: The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from Demonstration of Hemicellulose Extraction Technology from Pulping Hydrolysate and Xylose Preparation (2017YFB0307904), the team project of Pulp and Environment Technology R&D Center at China National Pulp and Paper Research Institute Co., Ltd.


[1] M.S. Jahan, A. Saeed, Z.B. He, Y.H. Ni: Cellul. 18 (2010) 451. DOI:10.1007/s10570-010-9481-z Search in Google Scholar

[2] X. Qin, C. Duan, X. Feng, Y. Zhang, L. Dai, Y. Xu, Y. Ni: Bioresour. Technol. 320 (2021) 124283. PMid:33120062; DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124283 Search in Google Scholar

[3] R.J. Moon, A. Martini, J. Nairn, J. Simonsen, J. Youngblood: Chem. Soc. Rev. 40 (2011) 3941. PMid:21566801; DOI:10.1039/c0cs00108b Search in Google Scholar

[4] R. Prathapan, R. Thapa, G. Garnier, R.F. Tabor: Colloids Surf. A. 509 (2016) 11. DOI:. DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2016.08.075 Search in Google Scholar

[5] M.I. Voronova, A.G. Zakharov, O.Y. Kuznetsov, O.V. Surov: Mater. Lett. 68 (2012) 164. DOI:10.1016/j.matlet.2011.09.115 Search in Google Scholar

[6] A. Khan, Y.B. Wen, T. Huq, Y.H. Ni: J. Agric. Food. Chem. 66 (2018) °. PMid:29251504; DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04204 Search in Google Scholar

[7] L. Dai, Y. Wang, X.J. Zou, Z.R. Chen, H. Liu, Y.H. Ni: Small. 16 (2020). PMid:32049432; DOI:10.1002/smll.201906567 Search in Google Scholar

[8] M. Pääkkö, M. Ankerfors, H. Kosonen, A. Nykänen, S. Ahola, M. Österberg, J. Ruokolainen, J. Laine, P.T. Larsson, O. Ikkala, T. Lindström: Biomacromol. 8 (2007) 1934. PMid:17474776; DOI:10.1021/bm061215p Search in Google Scholar

[9] T. Saito, Y. Okita, T.T. Nge, J. Sugiyama, A. Isogai: Carbohydr. Polym. 65 (2006) 435. DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2006.01.034 Search in Google Scholar

[10] R.A. Young: Cellul. 1 (1994) 107. DOI:10.1007/BF00819662 Search in Google Scholar

[11] C. Eyholzer, N. Bordeanu, F. Lopez-Suevos, D. Rentsch, T. Zimmermann, K. Oksman: Cellul. 17 (2010) 19. DOI:10.1007/s10570-009-9372-3 Search in Google Scholar

[12] M. Beaumont, J. König, M. Opietnik, P. Antje, R. Thomas: Cellul. 24 (2017) 1199. DOI:10.1007/s10570-016-1166-9 Search in Google Scholar

[13] J. Nemoto, T. Saito, A. Isogai: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7 (2015) 19809. PMid:26301859; DOI:10.1021/acsami.5b05841 Search in Google Scholar

[14] K. Sakai, Y. Kobayashi, T. Saito, A. Isogai: Sci. Rep. 6 (2016) 20434. PMid:26830144; DOI:10.1038/srep20434 Search in Google Scholar

[15] W. Abdelwahed, G. Degobert, S. Stainmesse, H. Fessi: Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 58 (2006) 1688. PMid:17118485; DOI:10.1016/j.addr.2006.09.017 Search in Google Scholar

[16] B.B. Patel, J.K. Patel, S. Chakraborty: Recent Pat. Drug Deliv. Formul. 8 (2014) 63. PMid:24720661; DOI:10.2174/1872211308666140211122012 Search in Google Scholar

[17] M.V.G. Zimmermann, C. Borsoi, A. Lavoratti, M. Zanini, A.J. Zattera, R.MC. Santana: J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 0 (2016) 1. DOI:10.1177/0731684415626286 Search in Google Scholar

[18] Y.C. Peng, Y. Han, D.J. Gardner: Wood Fiber Sci. 44 (2012) 448. DOI:10.1093/treephys/tps079 Search in Google Scholar

[19] F. Jiang, Y.L. Hsieh: Carbohydr. Polym. 95 (2013) 32. PMid:23618236; DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.02.022 Search in Google Scholar

[20] P. Munier, K. Gordeyeva, L. Bergström, B.F. Andreas: Biomacro-molecules 17 (2016) 1875. PMid:27071304; DOI:10.1021/acs.biomac.6b00304 Search in Google Scholar

[21] L. Segal, J.J. Greely, A.E. Jr. Martin, C.M. Conrad: Text. Res. J. 29 (1959) 786. DOI:10.1177/004051755902901003 Search in Google Scholar

[22] Y.C. Peng, D.J. Gardner, Y. Han: Cellul. 19 (2012) 91. DOI:10.1007/s10570-011-9630-z Search in Google Scholar

[23] E.L. Hult, P.T. Larsson, T. Iversen: Polym. 42 (2001) 3309. DOI:10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00774-6 Search in Google Scholar

[24] H. Fukuzumi, T. Saito, T. Iwata, Y. Kumamoto, A. Isogai: Biomacromolecules 10 (2009) 162. PMid:19055320; DOI:10.1021/bm801065u Search in Google Scholar

[25] H. Fukuzumi, T. Saito, Y. Okita, A. Isogai: Polym. Degrad. Stab. 95 (2010) 1502. DOI:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2010.06.015 Search in Google Scholar

[26] J.Q. Han, C.J. Zhou, Y.Q. Wu, F.Y. Liu, Q.L. Wu: Biomacromolecules 14 (2013) 1529. PMid:23544667; DOI:10.1021/bm4001734 Search in Google Scholar

[27] Y.C. Peng, D.J. Gardner, Y. Han, A. Kiziltas, Z.Y. Cai, M.A. Tshabalala: Cellul. 20 (2013) 2379. DOI:10.1007/s10570-013-0019-z Search in Google Scholar

[28] M.T.R. Bhuiyan, N. Hirai, N. Sobue: J. Wood Sci. 46 (2000) 431. DOI:10.1007/BF00765800 Search in Google Scholar

[29] W.J. Guo, Y. Wang, J.Q. Wan, Y.W. Ma: Carbohydr. Polym. 83 (2011) 1. DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.07.009 Search in Google Scholar

[30] Q.L. Meng, J.Q. Wan, Y.W. Ma, Y. Wang: Bioresour. 8 (2013) 2398. DOI:10.15376/biores.8.2.2398-2416 Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-10-16
Accepted: 2021-04-21
Published Online: 2021-08-18
Published in Print: 2021-08-31

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston, Germany