Skip to content
Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 15, 2021

Design of a novel HSLA steel with a combination of high strength (140–160 ksi) and excellent toughness

Mehdi Soltan Ali Nezhad, Sadegh Ghazvinian, Mahmoud Amirsalehi and Amir Momeni


Three steels were designed based on HSLA-100 with additional levels of Mn, Ni, Cr and Cu. The steels were prepared by controlled rolling and tempered at temperatures in range of 550–700°C. The continuous cooling time curves were shifted to longer times and lower temperatures with the increased tendency for the formation of martensite at lower cooling rates. The microstructures revealed that controlled rolling results in austenite with uniform fine grain structure. The steel with the highest amount of Mn showed the greatest strength after tempering at 750 °C. The top strength was attributed to the formation of Cu-rich particles. The steel with 1.03 wt.% Mn, tempered at 650 °C exhibited the best Charpy impact toughness at –85°C. On the other hand, the steel that contained 2.11 wt.% Mn and tempered at 700 °C showed the highest yield strength of 1 097.5 MPa (∼159 ksi) and an impact toughness of 41.6 J at –85°C.

Dr. Amir Momeni Hamedan University of Technology Hamedan Iran Tel.: +98 9123349007


[1] Z.J. Xie, Y.P. Fang, G. Han, H. Guo, R.D.K. Misra, C.J. Shang: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 618 (2014) 112. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2014.08.07210.1016/j.msea.2014.08.072Search in Google Scholar

[2] Y. Cao, X. Wan, F. Zhou, Y. Shen, Y. Liu, G. Li, K. Wu: In. J. Mater. Res., 112 (2021) 98. DOI:10.1515/ijmr-2020-784210.1515/ijmr-2020-7842Search in Google Scholar

[3] A. Ghosh, B. Mishra, S. Das, S. Chatterjee: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 396 (2005) 320. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2005.01.05010.1016/j.msea.2005.01.050Search in Google Scholar

[4] B. Shahriari, R. Vafaei, E. Mohammad Sharifi, Kh. Farmanesh:. Mater. Res. 108 (2017) 715. .DOI:10.3139/146.11153110.3139/146.111531Search in Google Scholar

[5] S. Vaynman, D. Isheim, R.P. Kolli, S.P. Bha, D.N. Seidman, M.E. Fine: Metal. Mater. Trans. A 39 (2008) 363. DOI:10.1007/s11661-007-9417-x10.1007/s11661-007-9417-xSearch in Google Scholar

[6] S.W. Thompson: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 711 (2018) 424. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2017.11.02210.1016/j.msea.2017.11.022Search in Google Scholar

[7] Z.Y. Xie, X.P. Ma, C.J. Shang, X.M. Wang, S.V. Subramanian: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 641 (2015) 37. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2015.05.10110.1016/j.msea.2015.05.101Search in Google Scholar

[8] D. Jain, D. Isheim, A.H. Hunter, D.N. Seidman: Metal. Mater. Trans. A 47 (2016) 3860. DOI:10.1007/s11661-016-3569-510.1007/s11661-016-3569-5Search in Google Scholar

[9] S. Liu, H. Tan, H. Guo, C. Shang, R.D.K. Misra: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 676 (2016) 510. 10.1016/j.msea.2016.08.126Search in Google Scholar

[10] J. Hu, L.X. Du, G.S. Sun, H. Xie, R.D.K. Misra: Scr. Mater. 104 (2015) 87. DOI:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2015.04.00910.1016/j.scriptamat.2015.04.009Search in Google Scholar

[11] X. Li, P. Wu, R. Yang, S. Zhao, S. Zhang, S. Chen, X. Wang: Mater. Des. 115 (2017) 165. DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2016.11.01710.1016/j.matdes.2016.11.017Search in Google Scholar

[12] S. Zheng, C. Davis, M. Strangwood: Mater. Charact. 95 (2014) 94. DOI:10.1016/j.matchar.2014.06.00810.1016/j.matchar.2014.06.008Search in Google Scholar

[13] D.B. Park, M.Y. Huh, J.H. Shim, J.Y. Suh, K.H. Lee, W.S. Jung: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 560 (2013) 528. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2012.09.09810.1016/j.msea.2012.09.098Search in Google Scholar

[14] B.K. Show, R. Veerababu, R. Balamuralikrishnan, G. Malakon-daiah: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527 (2010) 1595. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2009.10.04910.1016/j.msea.2009.10.049Search in Google Scholar

[15] J. Calvo, L. Collins, S. Yue: Int. J. Mater. Res. 105 (2014) 537. DOI:10.3139/146.11106210.3139/146.111062Search in Google Scholar

[16] A. Momeni, H. Arabi, A. Rezaei, H. Badri, S.M. Abbasi: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 528 (2011) 2158. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2010.11.06210.1016/j.msea.2010.11.062Search in Google Scholar

[17] M.C. Somani, D.A. Porter, L.P. Karjalainen, P.K. Kantanen, J.I. Kömi, D.K. Misra: Int. J. Mater. Res. 110 (2019) 183. DOI:10.3139/146.11174410.3139/146.111744Search in Google Scholar

[18] Gh. Khalaj, M.-J. Khalaj: Int. J. Mater. Res. 104 (2013) 697. DOI:10.3139/146.11091010.3139/146.110910Search in Google Scholar

[19] Y.C. Lin Y C, X.M. Chen, G. Liu: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527 (2018) 6980. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2010.07.06110.1016/j.msea.2010.07.061Search in Google Scholar

[20] G. Mandal, S.K. Ghosh, D. Chakrabarti, S. Chatterjee: Metallogr. Microstruct. Anal., 7 (2018) 222. DOI:10.1007/s13632-018-0432-710.1007/s13632-018-0432-7Search in Google Scholar

[21] S.K. Dhua, A. Ray, D.S. Sarma: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 318 (2001) 197. DOI:10.1016/S0921-5093(01)01259-X10.1016/S0921-5093(01)01259-XSearch in Google Scholar

[22] A. Das, S.K. Das, S. Tarafder: Metall. Mater. Trans. A 40 (2009) 3138. DOI:10.1007/s11661-009-9999-610.1007/s11661-009-9999-6Search in Google Scholar

[23] A. Ghosh, S. Chatterjee: Sci. Eng. A 486 (2008) 152. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2007.08.06210.1016/j.msea.2007.08.062Search in Google Scholar

[24] J.Y. Yoo, W.Y. Choo, T. Park: ISIJ Int. 35 (1995) 1034. DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.35.103410.2355/isijinternational.35.1034Search in Google Scholar

[25] M. Stadler, R. Schnitzer, M. Gruber, C. Hofer: Int. J. Mater. Res. Published online Search in Google Scholar

[26] Y.W. Chen, B.M. Huang, Y.T. Tsai, S.P. Tsai, C.Y. Chen, J.R. Yang: Mater. Charact. 131 (2017) 298. DOI:10.1016/j.matchar.2017.07.02210.1016/j.matchar.2017.07.022Search in Google Scholar

[27] F. Latourte, Z. Feinberg, L.F. Mori, G.B. Olson, H.D. Espinosa: Int. J. Fracture 162 (2010) 187. DOI:10.1007/s10704-010-9472-y10.1007/s10704-010-9472-ySearch in Google Scholar

[28] M. Katsumata, O. Ishiyama, T. Inoue, T. Tanaka: Mater. Trans. JIM 32 (1990) 715. DOI:10.2320/matertrans1989.32.71510.2320/matertrans1989.32.715Search in Google Scholar

[29] Y.K. Lee: J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 21 (2002) 1253. [30] L. Qian, Q. Zhou, F. Zhang, J. Meng, M. Zhang, Y. Tian: Mater. Des. 39 (2012) 264. DOI:10.1023/A:1016555119230Search in Google Scholar

[30] L. Qian, Q. Zhou, F. Zhang, J. Meng, M. Zhang, Y. Tian: Mater. Des. 39 (2012) 264. DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2012.02.05310.1016/j.matdes.2012.02.053Search in Google Scholar

[31] S.G. Hashemi, B. Eghbali: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 705 (2017) 32. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2017.07.09410.1016/j.msea.2017.07.094Search in Google Scholar

[32] C.H. Young, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Mater. Sci. Technol. 10 (1994) 209. DOI:10.1179/mst.1994.10.3.20910.1179/mst.1994.10.3.209Search in Google Scholar

[33] H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: Le J. de Physique IV 7(C5) (1994), C5– 367. DOI:10.1051/jp4 :199755810.1051/jp4:1997558Search in Google Scholar

[34] A. Rajasekhar, G.M. Reddy, T. Mohandas, V.S.R. Murti: Mater. Des. 30 (2009) 1612. DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2008.07.04210.1016/j.matdes.2008.07.042Search in Google Scholar

[35] J. Banas, A. Mazurkiewicz: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 277 (2000) 183. DOI:10.1016/S0921-5093(99)00530-410.1016/S0921-5093(99)00530-4Search in Google Scholar

[36] S. Okaguchi, T. Hashimoto: Trans. Iron Steel Inst. Japan 27 (1987) 467. DOI:10.2355/isijinternational1966.27.46710.2355/isijinternational1966.27.467Search in Google Scholar

[37] G. Khalaj, H. Yoozbashizadeh, A. Khodabandeh, A. Nazari: Neural Comp. Appl. 22 (2013) 879. Search in Google Scholar

[38] B. Pawłowski: J. Achiev. Mater. Manufac. Eng. 49 (2011) 331. Search in Google Scholar

[39] H. Kim, J. Inoue, M. Okada, K. Nagata: ISIJ Int. 57 (2012) 2229. DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2017-21210.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2017-212Search in Google Scholar

[40] A.I. Zaky: J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 15 (2017) 651. DOI:10.1361/105994906X15081210.1361/105994906X150812Search in Google Scholar

[41] L.J. Cuddy: Metall. Trans. A 12 (1981) 1313. DOI:10.1007/BF0264234510.1007/BF02642345Search in Google Scholar

[42] R. Gupta, S.K. Panthi, S. Srivastava: Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 46 (2016) 70.Search in Google Scholar

[43] K. Nagai: J. Mater. Process. Technol. 117 (2001) 329. DOI:10.1016/S0924-0136(01)00789-010.1016/S0924-0136(01)00789-0Search in Google Scholar

[44] G.R. Ebrahimi, A. Momeni, Sh. Kazemi, H. Alinejad: Vacuum 142 (2017) 135. DOI:10.1016/j.vacuum.2017.05.01010.1016/j.vacuum.2017.05.010Search in Google Scholar

[45] V.R. Mattes: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of. HSLA-100 Steel, M.Sc. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School Monteray CA, (1990).Search in Google Scholar

[46] C. Garcia-Mateo, F.G. Caballero, T. Sourmail, V. Smanio, C.G. de Andres: Int. J. Mater. Res. 105 (2014) 725. DOI:10.3139/146.11109010.3139/146.111090Search in Google Scholar

[47] H. Tamehiro, N. Yamada, H. Matsuda: Trans. Iron Steel Inst. Japan 25 (1985) 54. DOI:10.2355/isijinternational1966.25.5410.2355/isijinternational1966.25.54Search in Google Scholar

[48] M. Meuser, F. Grimpe, S. Meimeth, C.J. Heckmann, C. Träger: Mater. Sci. Forum 500 (2005) 565. DOI: 10.4028/ in Google Scholar

[49] K. Hulka: In 1st International Conference on Super-High Strength Steels, Rome, Italy, November 2–4 (2005) 11–24.Search in Google Scholar

[50] H. Tervo, A. Kaijalainen, T. Pikkarainen, S. Mehtonen, D. Porter: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 697 (2017) 184. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2017.05.01310.1016/j.msea.2017.05.013Search in Google Scholar

[51] R.J. Klassen, M.N. Bassim, M.R. Bayoumi, H.G.F. Wilsdorf: Mater. Sci. Eng. 80 (1986) 25. Search in Google Scholar

[52] A. Ghosh, S. Sahoo, M. Ghosh, R.N. Ghosh, D. Chakrabarti: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 613 (2014) 37. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2014.06.09110.1016/j.msea.2014.06.091Search in Google Scholar

[53] S. Maropoulos, N. Ridley: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 384 (2004) 64. DOI:10.1016/j.msea.2004.05.02310.1016/j.msea.2004.05.023Search in Google Scholar

[54] R.D.K. Misra, G.C. Weatherly, J.E. Hartmann, A.J. Boucek: Mater. Sci. Technol. 17 (2001) 1119. DOI:10.1179/02670830110151104010.1179/026708301101511040Search in Google Scholar

[55] S. Vervynckt, K. Verbeken, B. Lopez, J.J. Jonas: Int. Mater. Rev. 57 (2012) 187. DOI:10.1179/1743280411Y.000000001310.1179/1743280411Y.0000000013Search in Google Scholar

[56] S.K. Dhua, D. Mukerjee, D.S. Sarma: Metall. Mater. Trans. A 32 (2001) 2259. DOI:10.1007/s11661-001-0201-z10.1007/s11661-001-0201-zSearch in Google Scholar

[57] B. An, S. Ranganathan: ISIJ Int. 44 (2004) 115. DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.44.11510.2355/isijinternational.44.115Search in Google Scholar

[58] S. Panwar, D.B. Goel, O.P. Pandey, K.S. Prasad: Bull. Mater. Sci. 26 (2004) 441. DOI:10.1007/BF0271119010.1007/BF02711190Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-03-26
Accepted: 2021-07-23
Published Online: 2021-10-15

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston, Germany