The purpose of this scoping review was to assess the state of the literature concerning the experiences of new PhD-prepared tenure-track faculty, with a keen interest in nursing faculty. Effective recruitment and retention strategies for new nursing academic faculty need to be found and implemented. A literature review based on Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework for scoping reviews was undertaken. Using the PRISMA protocol, a systematic literature search was conducted in seven databases of studies published in English. Based upon inclusion criteria and relevance, 13 studies out of 90 papers were included in this study. Themes identified from the studies were transitioning to academia, developing a research program, balancing work and life, and perceived inequity. The research was predominately American and Canadian based. Several gaps in the literature were identified. Further research is critical to make recommendations to key stakeholders for recruitment and retention strategies.
Research funding: None declared.
Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.
Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.
Informed consent: Not applicable.
Ethical approval: Not applicable.
American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN]. (2011). Nursing shortage fact sheet. Health care (pp. 1–5). https://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/pdf/NrsgShortageFS.pdf Search in Google Scholar
American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN]. (2019). Special survey on vacant faculty positions for academic year 2018-2019. https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/News/Surveys-Data/vacancy08.pdf Search in Google Scholar
American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN]. (2020). Fact sheet: Nursing faculty shortage (pp. 1–4). https://www.aacnnursing.org/News-Information/Fact-Sheets/Nursing-Faculty-Shortage Search in Google Scholar
Arskey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8, 19–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616 Search in Google Scholar
Bartfay, W., & Howse, E. (2007). Who will teach the nurses of the future? Canadian Nurse, 103(7), 24–27.Search in Google Scholar
Berlin, L. E., & Sechrist, K. R. (2002). The shortage of doctorally prepared nursing faculty: A dire situation. Nursing Outlook, 50, 50–56. https://doi.org/10.1067/mno.2002.123270 Search in Google Scholar
Bice, A., Griggs, K., & Arms, T. (2019). Narratives of doctorally prepared nursing faculty on tenure track: A pilot study. Journal of Professional Nursing, 35(4), 293–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2019.01.004 Search in Google Scholar PubMed
Boamah, S. A., Callen, M., & Cruz, E. (2021). Nursing faculty shortage in Canada: A scoping review of contributing factors. Nursing Outlook, 69(4), 574–588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2021.01.018.Search in Google Scholar PubMed
Buchan, J., & Calman, L. (2004). The global shortage of registered nurses: An overview of issues and actions. In The global nursing review initiative. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241448495_The_Global_Shortage_of__Registered_Nurses_AnOverview_of_Issues_and_Actions Search in Google Scholar
Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing [CASN]. (2021). Registered nurses education in Canada statistics 2019-2020. https://www.casn.ca/2021/12/registered-nurses-education-in-canada-statistics-2019-2020/ Search in Google Scholar
Canadian Association of University Teachers [CAUT]. (2022). The shortage behind the shortage: Nurse educators. The Bulletin, 69(May/Kune), 24–26.Search in Google Scholar
Etzkorn, K. B., & Braddock, A. (2020). Are you my mentor: A study of faculty mentoring relationships in US higher education and the implications for tenure. International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Educations, 9(3), 221–237. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJMCE-08-2019-0083 Search in Google Scholar
Garrison-Wade, D. F., Diggs, G. A., Estrada, D., & Galindo, R. (2012). Lift every voice and sing: Faculty of color face the challenges of tenure track. The Urban Review, 44, 90–112. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-011-0182-1 Search in Google Scholar
Greene, H. C., O’Connor, K. A., Good, A. J., Ledford, C. C., Peel, B. B., & Zhang, G. (2008). Building a support system toward tenure: Challenges and needs of tenure-track faculty in colleges of education. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16(4), 429–447. https://doi.org/10.1080/136112602433791 Search in Google Scholar
Heinrich, K. T. (2005). Halfway between receiving and giving: A relational analysis of doctorate-prepared nurse-scholars’ first 5 years after graduation. Journal of Professional Nursing, 21(5), 303–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2005.07.004 Search in Google Scholar PubMed
Jones, S. J., Taylor, C. M., & Coward, F. (2013). Through the looking glass: An autoethnographic view of the perceptions of race and institutional support in the tenure process. The Qualitative Report, 18, 1–16.Search in Google Scholar
Kawalilak, C., & Groen, J. (2010). Illuminating the tenure-track pathway: A “new” faculty perspective. Journal of Educational Thought, 20(10), 131–146.Search in Google Scholar
Levac, D., Colquhoun, H., & O’Brien, K. K. (2010). Scoping studies: Advancing the methodology. Implementation Science, 5(69), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-69.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
Meleis, A. I. (2005). Shortage of nurses means shortage of nurse scientists. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(2), 111. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03308.x. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2002.02354.x-i1 Search in Google Scholar PubMed
Munn, Z., Peters, M. D. J., Stern, C., Tufanaru, C., McArthur, A., & Aromataris, E. (2018). Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 18(143), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186.s12874-018-0611-x.10.1186/s12874-018-0611-xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
Oulton, J. A. (2006). The global nursing shortage: An overview of the issues and actions. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 7, 34S–39S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1527154406293968 Search in Google Scholar PubMed
Page, M. K., McKenzie, J. E., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T. C., Mulrow, C. D., Shamseer, L., Tetzlaff, J. M., Akl, E. A., Brennan, S. E., Chou, R., Glanville, J., Grimsha, J. M., Hrobjartsson, A., Lalu, M. M., Li, T., Loder, E. W., Mayo-Wilson, E., McDonald, S., … Moher, D. (2021). The PRISMA 2020 statement: An updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. PLoS Medicine, 18(3), e1003583. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1123 Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
Pham, M. T., Rajic´, A., Greig, J. D., Sargeant, J. M., Papadopoulos, A., & McEwen, S. A. (2014). A scoping review of scoping reviews: Advancing the approach and enhancing the consistency. Research Synthesis Methods, 5(4), 371–385. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1123 Search in Google Scholar
Ponjuan, L., Martin Conley, V., & Trower, C. (2011). Career stage differences in pre-tenure track faculty perceptions of professional and personal relationships with colleague. The Journal of Higher Education, 82(3), 319–346. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2011.11777204 Search in Google Scholar
Poronsky, C. B., Doering, J. J., Mkandawire-Valhmu, L., & Rice, E. I. (2012). Transition to the tenure track for nurse faculty with young children: A case study. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33(4), 255–259. https://doi.org/10.5480/1536-5026-33.4.255 Search in Google Scholar
Salter, N. P., Sawyer, K., & Gebhardt, S. T. (2021). How does intersectionality impact work attitudes? The effect of layered group memberships in a field sample. Journal of Business and Psychology, 36, 1035–1052. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-020-09718-z Search in Google Scholar
Schrodt, P., Cawyer, C. S., & Sanders, R. (2003). An examination of academic mentoring behaviors and new faculty members’ satisfaction with socialization and tenure and promotion processes. Communication Education, 52(1), 17–29. https://doi.org/10.1080.03634520302461 10.1080/03634520302461Search in Google Scholar
Singh, M. D., Patrick, L., & Pilkington, B. (2016). An exploration of the pre-tenure and tenure process experiences of Canadian nursing faculty. Quality Advancement in Nursing Education, 2(2), Art. 2. 1–10. https://doi.org/10.17483/2368-6669.1062 Search in Google Scholar
Singh, M. D., Pilkington, B., & Patrick, L. (2014). Empowerment and mentoring in nursing academia. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 11(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijnes-2013-0070 Search in Google Scholar PubMed
Solomon, C. R. (2011). “Sacrificing at the altar of tenure”: Assistant professors’ work/life management. The Social Science Journal, 48(2), 335–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2010.11.006 Search in Google Scholar
Tricco, A. C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O’Brien, K. K., Colquhoun, H., Levac, D., Moher, D., Peters, M. D. J., Horsley, T., Weeks, L., Hartling, L., Aldcroft, A., Wilson, M. G., Garrity, C., Lewin, S., Godfrey, C. M., MacDonald, M.T., Langlois, E., Soares-Weiser, K., … Straus, S. E. (2018). PRISMA extension for scoping review (PRIMSA-ScR): Checklist and explanation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 169, 467–473. https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-0850 Search in Google Scholar PubMed
Vandyk, A., Chartrand, J., Beke´, E., Burlock, L., & Baker, C. (2017). Perspectives of academic leaders of the nursing faculty shortage in Canada. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 14(1), 286–299. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijnes-2017-0049 Search in Google Scholar PubMed
van Dongen, L., Cardif, S., Kluijtmans, M., Schoonhoven, L., Hamers, J. P. H., Schuurmans, M. J., & Hafsteinsdóttir, T. (2021). Developing leadership in postdoctoral nurses: A longitudinal mixed-methods study. Nursing Outlook, 69, 550–564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2021.01.014 Search in Google Scholar PubMed
World Health Organization [WHO]. (2020). State of the world’s nursing 2020: Investing in education, jobs, and leadership. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331677 Search in Google Scholar
Yordy, K. D. (2006). The nursing faculty shortage: A crisis for health care. Association of Academic Health Centers. www.ahcnet.org/pdf/factors_affecting_the_health_workforce_2005.pdf Search in Google Scholar
This article contains supplementary material (https://doi.org/10.1515/ijnes-2022-0025).
© 2023 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston