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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 24, 2023

Self-perceived competence and its related factors in nursing students at graduation: the role of self-efficacy

  • Cahide Ayik ORCID logo EMAIL logo and Merve Aliye Akyol ORCID logo



This study aimed to investigate the level of perceived competence and explore the predictors of competence in nursing students at graduation.


This cross-sectional study was conducted with students at the point of graduation (n=239). A sociodemographic form and three different scales assessing students’ competence, self-efficacy, and self-reflection and insight were used to collect data. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess students’ satisfaction (i.e., the role as nursing students in the nursing program), job-related stress (i.e., perceived stress related to nursing program), and coping behaviors. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and hierarchical linear regression.


The mean scores of perceived competence, self-reflection, insight, and self-efficacy were 5.25 ± 0.96 (range: 1–7), 54.51 ± 7.83 (range: 12–96), 33.36 ± 5.40 (range: 8–48), 84.13 ± 12.27 (range: 0–100), respectively. Self-efficacy was the most significant associated factor of the entire group of variables in competence.


Scores of perceived competence of students were optimistic. Self-efficacy was the most important factor affecting competence; that is, the greater the self-efficacy, the better the perceived competence.

Corresponding author: Cahide Ayik, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Fundementals of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Dokuz Eylul University, Balcova, Izmir, Türkiye, Phone: +90 232 412 69 70, Fax: +90 232 412 47 89, E-mail: .

  1. Research ethics: Written permissions were obtained from the Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Nursing (Decision date: 17.02.2021, Protocol no: 175) where the research was conducted and the ethics committee of non-interventional studies (Decision date: 01.03.2021, Protocol no: 2021/07-18).

  2. Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.

  3. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  4. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  5. Research funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

  6. Data availability: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author, upon reasonable request.


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Received: 2023-04-05
Accepted: 2023-10-22
Published Online: 2023-11-24

© 2023 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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