Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 16, 2021

Use of Image Analysis for Non-Destructive Testing of Thermoformed Food Packages

O. Ekşi

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the thickness distribution of a food package using a non-destructive method. Initially, thickness measurements were carried out using an experimental procedure for thermoformed samples that were used for food packaging. Additionally, in this study, image analysis was used for the first time to determine the thickness distribution of the thermoformed products non-destructively. Image analysis software was employed for the estimation of thickness distribution. Measured thickness results were compared to those estimated using image analysis. Based on the results of the current study, image analysis may be an alternative method for non-destructive testing of thermoformed food packages even in a mass production line. Image analysis can be used to determine not only thickness distribution but also the weakest regions in a food package.


Olcay Ekşi, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kirklareli University, Kayalı Campus, Kirklareli, 39020, Turkey


Acknowledgements

The author is particularly grateful to Danone Lüleburgaz Factory (Turkey) for providing the food packages that were used in this study.

References

Ayadi, A., Lacrampe, M. F. and Krawczak, P., “Bubble Assisted Vacuum Thermoforming: Considerations to Extend the Use of in-situ Stereo-DIC Measurements to Stretching of Sagged Thermoplastic Sheets", Int. J. Mater. Form., 13, 59–76 (2020), DOI:10.1007/s12289-018-01467-y10.1007/s12289-018-01467-ySearch in Google Scholar

Buffel, B., Van Mieghem, B., Van Bael, A. and Desplentere, F., “A Combined Experimental and Modelling Approach towards an Optimized Heating Strategy in Thermoforming of Thermoplastics Sheets", Int. Polym. Proc., 32, 378–386 (2017), DOI:10.3139/217.337010.3139/217.3370Search in Google Scholar

Gajdos, I., Maňková, I., Jachowicz, T. and Tor-Swiatek, A., “Application of Rapid Tooling Approach in Process of Thermoforming Mold Production", Proceedings of 8th I. Eng. Symp. Mater. and Manuf. Tech. Papers, 1–6 (2016), DOI:10.1515/eng-2016-001110.1515/eng-2016-0011Search in Google Scholar

Längauer, M., Zitzenbacher, G., Burgstaller, C. and Hochenauer, C., “Enhanced Infrared Heating of Thermoplastic Composite Sheets for Thermoforming Processes", Int. Polym. Proc., 36, 35–43 (2021), DOI:10.1515/ipp-2020-392310.1515/ipp-2020-3923Search in Google Scholar

Lopez-Gil, A., Silva-Bellucci, F., Velasco, D., Ardanuy, M. and Rodriguez-Perez, M. A., “Cellular Structure and Mechanical Properties of Starch-based Foamed Blocks Reinforced with Natural Fibers and Produced by Microwave Heating", Ind. Crop. Prod., 66, 194–205 (2015), DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.12.02510.1016/j.indcrop.2014.12.025Search in Google Scholar

Marathe, D., Rokade, D., Busher Azad, L., Jadhav, K.,Mahajan, S., Ahmad, Z., Gupta, S., Kulkarni, S., Juvekar, V. and Lele, A., “Effect of Plug Temperature on the Strain and Thickness Distribution of Components Made by Plug Assist Thermoforming", Int. Polym. Proc., 31, 166–178 (2016), DOI:10.3139/217.306010.3139/217.3060Search in Google Scholar

Marathe, D., Shelar, S., Mahajan, S., Ahmad, Z., Gupta, S., Kulkarni, S., Juvekar, V. and Lele, A., “Study of Rheology and Plug Assist Thermoforming of Linear and Branched PP Homopolymer and Impact Copolymer", Int. Polym. Proc., 34, 339–355 (2019), DOI:10.3139/217.370410.3139/217.3704Search in Google Scholar

Mendoza, F., Lu, R., “Chapter 2 Basics of Image Analysis", in Hyperspectral Imaging Technology in Food and Agriculture, Park, B. and Lu, R. (Eds.), Springer, New York, p. 9–56 (2015), DOI:10.1007/978-1-4939-2836-1_210.1007/978-1-4939-2836-1_2Search in Google Scholar

Mieghem, B. V., Lava, P., Debruyne, D., Bael, A. V. and Ivens, J., “Digital Image Correlation for On-Line Wall Thickness Measurements in Thick Gauge Thermoforming", Key. Eng. Mat., 554–557, 1583–1591 (2013), DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.554-557.158310.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.554-557.1583Search in Google Scholar

Mieghem, B. V., Desplentere, F., Bael, A. V. and Ivens, J., “Improvements in Thermoforming Simulation by Use of 3D Digital Image Correlation", eXPRESS Polym. Lett., 9, 119–128 (2015a), DOI:10.3144/expresspolymlett.2015.1310.3144/expresspolymlett.2015.13Search in Google Scholar

Mieghem, B. V., Hamblok, M., Bael, A. V., Buffel, B., Amerijckx, M. and Desplentere, F., “On the Potential of Stereo Digital Image Correlation in Thermoforming", Thermoforming Q., 34, 20–28 (2015b), https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/34639683.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

Mieghem, B. V., Ivens, J. and Bael, A. V., “Consistency of Strain Fields and Thickness Distributions in Thermoforming Experiments through Stereo DIC", Exp. Tech., 40, 1409–1420 (2016), DOI:10.1007/s40799-016-0143-410.1007/s40799-016-0143-4Search in Google Scholar

Moladous, H., Dizaji, M. M. and Haghighi, Z. O., “Estimation of Septal Wall Thickness by Processing Sequential Echocardiographic Images", Int. Cardio. Res. J., 3, 24–33 (2009), https://sites.kowsar-pub.com/ircrj/articles/68527.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

Naouar, N., Vidal-Sallé, E., Schneider, J., Maire, E. and Boisse, P., “Meso-Scale FE Analyses of Textile Composite Reinforcement Deformation Based on X-ray Computed Tomography", Compos. Struct., 116, 165–176 (2014), DOI:10.1016/j.compstruct.2014.04.02610.1016/j.compstruct.2014.04.026Search in Google Scholar

Nixon, J., Menary, G. H. and Yan, S., “Free-Stretch-Blow Investigation of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) over a Large Process Window", Int. J. Mater. Form., 10, 765–777 (2017), DOI:10.1007/s12289-016-1318-310.1007/s12289-016-1318-3Search in Google Scholar

Oksuz, M., Alsac, C. and Ates, M., “The Effects of Thermoform Molding Conditions on Polyvinylchloride and Polyethylene Double Layer Package Materials", Polym. Eng. Sci., 49, 2234–2241 (2009), DOI:10.1002/pen.2147110.1002/pen.21471Search in Google Scholar

Pazmino, J., Carvelli, V., Lomov, S. V. Mieghem, B. V. and Lava, P., “3D Digital Image Correlation Measurements during Shaping of a Non-crimp 3D Orthogonal Woven E-glass Reinforcement", Int. J. Mater. Form., 7, 439–446 (2014a), DOI:10.1007/s12289-013-1139-610.1007/s12289-013-1139-6Search in Google Scholar

Pazmino, J., Carvelli, V. and Lomov, S. V., “Formability of a Non-crimp 3D Orthogonal Weave E-glass Composite Reinforcement", Composites Part A, 61, 76–83 (2014b), DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2014.02.00410.1016/j.compositesa.2014.02.004Search in Google Scholar

Potluri, P., Parlak, I., Ramgulam, R. and Sagar, T. V., “Analysis of Tow Deformations in Textile Preforms Subjected to Forming Forces", Compos. Sci. Technol., 66, 297–305 (2006), DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2005.04.03910.1016/j.compscitech.2005.04.039Search in Google Scholar

Throne, J. L.: Technology of Thermoforming, 1st Edition, Hanser, Munich (1996), DOI:10.3139/9783446402478.00110.3139/9783446402478.001Search in Google Scholar

Ülkü, E., Demir, Ö., Yildiz, K. and Yildiz, Z., “Fibre Thickness Measurement Using Image Processing", SIU 2015 – Proceedings, 1166–1166 (2015), DOI:10.1109/SIU.2015.713004310.1109/SIU.2015.7130043Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-03-26
Accepted: 2021-06-02
Published Online: 2021-11-16

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston, Germany