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A bibliometric analysis of the IRAL over the past six decades

Xiaolu Zhong and Haitao Liu

Abstract

Using a bibliometric analysis of the publications in the International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching (IRAL), one of the journals with the most extended history in applied linguistics (AL), we combed through three periods of the journal’s development trajectory over 60 years. Specifically, we 1) examined the most frequently discussed topics in IRAL and their evolving patterns; 2) extracted the most highly-cited articles, the sources of citations, the sub-subjects of sources of citations, as well as the most highly-cited references; and 3) calculated the counts of authors in each year and their h-index, and identified the authors and countries/regions that contributed most to the journal. The results provide information on IRAL’s content, impact, and attractiveness, constituting a multi-faceted evaluation of the journal. Meanwhile, the same bibliometric procedures were conducted on Language Learning (LL), which acted as a reference for interpreting the performance of IRAL and identifying the gaps between IRAL and the leading journals in AL. Finally, suggestions for further adjustments and improvements to the journal were discussed.


Corresponding author: Haitao Liu, Department of Linguistics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, P.R. China; and Center for Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou, P.R. China, E-mail:

Funding source: The National Social Science Foundation of China

Award Identifier / Grant number: Grant No. 17AYY021

  1. Research funding: This work was funded by the National Social Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 17AYY021).

Appendix 1: Most highly-cited LL articles

1963–1979 1980–1999 2000–2022
Cultural thought patterns in intercultural education (Kaplan, R.B. 1966) C#845 (2) The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes (Truscott, J. 1996) C#600 (3) Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis (Norris, J.M., Ortega, L. 2000) C#979 (1)
Natural sequences in child second language acquisition (Dulay, H.C., Burt, M.K. 1974) C#430 (8) Research on negotiation: What does it reveal about second-language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes? (Pica, T. 1994) C#515 (5) How big is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research (Plonsky, L., Oswald, F.L. 2014) C#541 (4)
Markedness and the contrastive analysis hypothesis (Eckman, F.R. 1977) C#294 Foreign accent, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in the speech of second language learners (Munro, M.J., Derwing, T.M. 1995) C#476 (6) Patterns of interaction in ESL pair work (Storch, N. 2002) C#410 (11)
The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research (Scovel, T. 1978) C#288 Lexical development in bilingual infants and toddlers: Comparison to monolingual norms (Pearson, B.Z., Fernández, S.C., Oller, D.K. 1993) C#465 (7) Language is a complex adaptive system: Position paper (Beckner, C., Blythe, R., Bybee, J., Christiansen, M.H., Croft, W., Ellis, N.C., Holland, J., Ke, J., Larsen-Freeman, D., Schoenemann, T. 2009) C#393 (13)
Lateralization, language learning, and the critical period: Some new evidence (Krashen, S.D. 1973) C#279 The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language (MacIntyre, P.D., Gardner, R.C. 1994) C#428 (9) Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory (Noels, K.A., Pelletier, L.G., Clément, R., Vallerand, R.J. 2000) C#393 (14)
Is there a ‘natural sequence’ in adult second language learning? (Bailey, N., Madden, C., Krashen, S.D. 1974) C#256 Motivation: Reopening the research agenda (Crookes, G., Schmidt, R.W. 1991) C#424 (10) The effectiveness of corrective feedback in SLA: A meta-analysis (Li, S. 2010) C#356 (16)
Should we teach children syntax? (Dulay, H.C., Burt, M.K. 1973) C#249 Evidence for multicompetence (Cook, V.J. 1992) C#400 (12) Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research, and applications (Dörnyei, Z. 2003) C#353 (17)
An error in error analysis (Schachter, J. 1974) C#246 Motivation, self-confidence, and group cohesion in the foreign language classroom (Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., Noels, K.A. 1994) C#358 (15) Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny (Abrahamsson, N., Hyltenstam, K. 2009) C#341 (18)
A theoretical model of second language learning (Bialystok, E. 1978) C#184 Investigating fluency in EFL: A quantitative approach (Lennon, P. 1990) C#328 (19) Interactions between type of instruction and type of language feature: A meta-analysis (Spada, N., Tomita, Y. 2010) C#315 (20)
Language transfer and universal grammatical relations (Gas, S. 1979) C#172 Attention, memory, and the ‘noticing’ hypothesis (Robinson, P. 1995) C#311 The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication (Yashima, T., Zenuk-Nishide, L., Shimizu, K. 2004) C#309
A descriptive model of discourse in the corrective treatment of learners’ errors (Chaudron, C. 1977) C#155 Anxiety and second-language learning: Toward a theoretical clarification (MacIntyre, P.D., Gardner, R.C. 1989) C#305 Some empirical evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition (Hulstijn, J.H., Laufer, B. 2001) C#298
Avoidance behavior in adult second language acquisition (Kleinmann, H.H. 1977) C#154 Biases in self-ratings of second language proficiency: The role of language anxiety (MacIntyre, P.D., Noels, K.A., Clément, R. 1997) C#294 Introduction: Investigating form-focused instruction (Ellis, R. 2001) C#293
A case study of a Japanese child learning English as a second language (Hakuta, K. 1976) C#140 Conceptualizing motivation in foreign-language learning (Dörnyei, Z. 1990) C#284 Investigating the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic reading performance: An assessment perspective (Qian, D.D. 2002) C#289
Foreign accents, language acquisition, and cerebral dominance (Scovel, T. 1969) C#132 Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature (MacIntyre, P.D., Gardner, R.C. 1991) C#279 Age and second language acquisition and processing: A selective overview (Birdsong, D. 2006) C#261
Interlanguage as chameleon (Tarone, E. 1979) C#129 Writing expertise and second-language proficiency (Cumming, A. 1989) C#257 Learner uptake in communicative ESL lessons (Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., Loewen, S. 2001) C#259
Affective and ability factors in second-language acquisition (Chastain, K. 1975) C#128 The influence of task structure and processing conditions on narrative retellings (Skehan, P., Foster, P. 1999) C#251 Explaining the “natural order of l2 morpheme acquisition” in English: A meta-analysis of multiple determinants (Goldschneider, J.M., DeKeyser, R.M. 2001) C#257
Prefabricated patterns and the emergence of structure in second language acquisition (Hakuta, K. 1974) C#127 The relationship between native speaker judgments of nonnative pronunciation and deviance in segmentais, prosody, and syllable structure (Anderson-Hsieh, J., Johnson, R., Koehler, K. 1992) C#251 What makes learning second-language grammar difficult? A review of issues (DeKeyser, R.M. 2005) C#251
An explanation for the morpheme acquisition order of second language learners (Larsen-Freeman, D.E. 1976) C#126 The effect of familiarity on the comprehensibility of nonnative speech (Gass, S., Varonis, E.M. 1984) C#247 Recasts as feedback to language learners (Nicholas, H., Lightbown, P.M., Spada, N. 2001) C#237
The monitor model: Some methodological considerations (McLaughlin, B. 1978) C#117 Negotiation of form, recasts, and explicit correction in relation to error types and learner repair in immersion classrooms (Lyster, R. 1998) C#243 Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates (Masgoret, A.-M., Gardner, R.C. 2003) C#235
Motivation to learn and language proficiency (Lukmani, Y.M. 1972) C#117 Evidence in favor of a broad framework for pronunciation instruction (Derwing, T.M., Munro, M.J., Wiebe, G. 1998) C#241 Processing instruction: An update (VanPatten, B. 2002) C#233

  1. The top 20 articles with the highest total citations over the 60 years are italicized, and the number in the last brackets is the ranking.

Appendix 2: Source of citation (LL)

Rank Source of citation Counts of articles Percentage 2020 impact metrics
1 Language Learning 1,075 3.26% 4.667 (JIF)
2 System 910 2.76% 3.167 (JIF)
3 Studies in Second Language Acquisition 668 2.03% 3.988 (JIF)
4 TESOL Quarterly 542 1.65% 3.692 (JIF)
5 Modern Language Journal 493 1.50% 4.759 (JIF)
6 Language Teaching Research 451 1.37% 3.899 (JIF)
7 Foreign Language Annals 432 1.31% 2.067 (JIF)
8 IRAL 430 1.31% 0.970 (JIF)
9 Frontiers in Psychology 408 1.24% 2.988 (JIF)
10 Bilingualism-Language and Cognition 407 1.24% 3.532 (JIF)
11 Second Language Research 398 1.21% 2.178 (JIF)
12 Applied Psycholinguistics 348 1.06% 1.838 (JIF)
13 Language testing 315 0.96% 3.551 (JIF)
14 Applied Linguistics 289 0.88% 5.741 (JIF)
15 Journal of Second Language Writing 265 0.80% 3.538 (JIF)
16 Language Teaching 264 0.80% 5.327 (JIF)
17 The Language Learning Journal 252 0.77% 2.400 (CS)
18 RELC Journal 251 0.76% 1.596 (JIF)
19 International Journal of Bilingualism 239 0.73% 1.693 (JIF)
20 Asian EFL Journal 220 0.67% 1.000 (CS)

  1. Publications that are not in IRAL’s top 20 sources of citation are bolded. Impact metrics: for SSCI-indexed journals, the 2020 journal impact factor (JIF) is provided. For others, including non-SSCI indexed journals and book serials, Scopus’s CiteScore (CS) is provided.

Appendix 3: The sub-subject area of the source of citation (IRAL) (order by weighted counts)

Rank Subject area Sub-subject area Counts of journal Weighted by

number of articles
1 Social Sciences Linguistics and Language 522 8,288
2 Arts and Humanities Language and Linguistics 481 7,663
3 Social Sciences Education 381 4,485
4 Social Sciences Communication 74 588
5 Arts and Humanities Literature and Literary Theory 97 357
6 Psychology Experimental and Cognitive Psychology 55 326
7 Psychology Psychology (all) 48 312
8 Social Sciences Cultural Studies 66 265
9 Psychology Developmental and Educational Psychology 85 265
10 Computer Science Computer Science Applications 48 258
11 Social Sciences Sociology and Political Science 43 214
12 Health Professions Speech and Hearing 28 193
13 Computer Science Artificial Intelligence 17 157
14 Social Sciences Anthropology 25 118
15 Arts and Humanities Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous) 38 114
16 Social Sciences General Social Sciences 9 89
17 Psychology Social Psychology 28 87
18 Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience 23 82
19 Social Sciences Social Sciences (miscellaneous) 9 82
20 Physics and Astronomy Acoustics and Ultrasonics 6 70

Appendix 4: The sub-subject area of the source of citation (LL) (order by weighted counts)

Rank Subject area Sub-subject area Counts of journal Weighted by

number of articles
1 Social Sciences Linguistics and Language 551 18,255
2 Arts and Humanities Language and Linguistics 498 15,970
3 Social Sciences Education 668 12,920
4 Psychology Experimental and Cognitive Psychology 85 2040
5 Psychology Developmental and Educational Psychology 194 1907
6 Psychology Psychology (all) 98 1,496
7 Social Sciences Communication 110 1,117
8 Health Professions Speech and Hearing 45 1,010
9 Computer Science Computer Science Applications 100 1,005
10 Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience 49 807
11 Arts and Humanities Literature and Literary Theory 114 637
12 Psychology Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology 33 607
13 Social Sciences Cultural Studies 106 597
14 Arts and Humanities Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous) 80 536
15 Social Sciences Sociology and Political Science 100 512
16 Computer Science Artificial Intelligence 45 451
17 Social Sciences Social Sciences (miscellaneous) 39 450
18 Psychology Social Psychology 74 436
19 Neuroscience Behavioral Neuroscience 31 270
20 Social Sciences Anthropology 38 217

Appendix 5: Most highly-cited references (IRAL)

1963–1979 1980–1999 2000–2022
Aspects of the theory of syntax (Chomsky, N. 1965) C#22 “Interlanguage” (Selinker, L. 1972 IRAL) C#20 A cognitive approach to language learning (Skehan, P. 1998) C#22
“The significance of learners errors” (Corder, S.P. 1967 IRAL) C#17 The sentence and its parts: A grammar of contemporary English (Long, R. B. 1961) C#18 “The role of consciousness in second language learning” (Schmidt, R. W. 1990 Applied Linguistics) C#21
Linguistics across cultures: Applied linguistics for language teachers (Robert, L. 1957) C#16 Semantics (Lyons, J. 1977) C#18 The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition (Long, M. 1996 in Handbook of Second Language acquisition) C#17
Introduction to theoretical linguistics (Lyons, J. 1968) C#13 “A non-contrastive approach to error analysis” (Richards, J.C. 1971 ELT Journal) C#16 “Frequency effects in language processing: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition” (Ellis, N. C. 2002 Studies in Second Language Acquisition) C#15
“Interlanguage” (Selinker, L. 1972 IRAL) C#11 A communicative grammar of English (Leech, G., Svartvik, J. 1975) C#13 Speaking: From intention to articulation (Levelt, W. J. 1993) C#14
Syntactic structures (Chomsky, N. 1957) C#11 Aspects of the theory of syntax (Chomsky, N. 1965) C#13 “The robustness of critical period effects in second language acquisition” (DeKeyser, R. M. 2000 Studies in Second Language Acquisition) C#14
The linguistic sciences and language teaching (Halliday, M.A.K., McIntosh, A., Strevens, P. 1964) C#10 Cohesion in English (Halliday, M.A.K., Hasan, R. 1976) C#13 Attention (Schmidt, R. 2001 in Cognition and Second Language Instruction) C#13
The sound pattern of English (Chomsky, N., Halle, M. 1968) C#10 Linguistics across cultures: Applied linguistics for language teachers (Robert, L. 1957) C#13 Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development (Swain, M. 1985 in Input in Second Language Acquisition) C#13
Language teaching analysis (Mackey, W. F. 1967) C#9 Second language acquisition and second language learning (Krashen, S. 1981) C#13 Individual differences in second language learning (Skehan, P. 1989) C#13
Languages in contact (Weinreich, U. 1953) C#9 Introducing applied linguistics (Corder, S. 1973) C#12 “Interlanguage” (Selinker, L. 1972 IRAL) C#13
“A psycholinguistic critique of programmed foreign language instruction” (Spolsky, B. 1966 IRAL) C#8 Principles and practice in second language acquisition (Krashen, S. 1982) C#12 “L2 cognitive states and the full transfer/full access model” (Schwartz, B. D., Sprouse, R. A. 1996 Second Language Research) C#13
Teaching and learning English as a foreign language (Fries, C. C. 1945) C#8 “The significance of learners errors” (Corder, S.P. 1967 IRAL) C#12 The study of second language acquisition (Ellis, R. 1994) C#13
Verbal behavior (Skinner, B. F. 1957) C#8  A comprehensive grammar of the English language (Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., Svartvik, J. 1985) C#11 Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (Council of Europe, Council for Cultural Co-operation, Education Committee, Modern Languages Division 2001) C#12
Foreign language learning: A psycholinguistic analysis of the issues (Jakobovits, L. A. 1970) C#7 Language two (Dulay, H., Burt, M., Krashen, S. 1982) C#11 “Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language” (Johnson, J. S., Newport, E. L. 1989 Cognitive Psychology) C#12
The sentence and its parts: A grammar of contemporary English (long, R. B. 1961) C#6 Understanding second language acquisition (Ellis, R. 1989) C#11  “Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction” (Lyster, R. 2004 Studies in Second Language Acquisition) C#12
A linguistic theory of translation (Catford, J. C. 1978) C#6  A university grammar of English (Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S. 1973) C#10 “Discourse motivations for some cognitive acquisition principles” (Andersen, R. W., Shirai, Y. 1994 Studies in Second Language Acquisition) C#12
The biological foundations of language (Lenneberg, E. H. 1967) C#6 An introduction to functional grammar (Halliday, M.A.K. 1994) C#10 “Explaining the ‘natural order of L2 morpheme acquisition’ in English: A meta-analysis of multiple determinants” (Goldschneider, J. M., DeKeyser, R. M. 2005 Language Learning) C#12
Comparing the phonetic features of English, French, German and Spanish (Delattre, P. 1965) C#6  Logic and conversation (Grice, H. P. 1975 in Speech Acts) C#10 Learning vocabulary in another language (Nation, I. S. 2001) C#12
“On sources of errors in foreign language learning” (Dušková, L. 1969 IRAL) C#6 Principles of language learning and teaching (Brown, H. D. 1980) C#10 Longman grammar of spoken and written English (Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., Finegan, E. 2000) C#11 
The case for case (Fillmore, C. J. 1968 in Universals in Linguistic Theory) C#6 A modern English grammar on historical principles (Jespersen, O. 1909) C#9 Principles and practice in second language acquisition (Krashen, S. 1982) C#11

  1. The titles of journal papers are enclosed in double quotation marks.

Appendix 6: Most highly-cited references (LL)

1963–1979 1980–1999 2000–2022
“The acquisition of grammatical morphemes by adult ESL students” (Freeman, D. E. L. 1975 TESOL Quarterly) C#6 Language (Bloomfield, L. 1933) C#7 A dynamic approach to second language development: Methods and techniques (Verspoor, M., de Bot, K., Lowie, W. 2011) C#5
“A non-contrastive approach to error analysis” (Richards, J.C. 1971 ELT Journal) C#4 Semantics (Lyons, J. 1977) C#5 Effects of the second language on the first (Cook, V., Cook, V. J. 2003) C#5
“Psycholinguistic universals in the reading process” (Goodman, K. S. 1970 Visible Language) C#4 Developmental psycholinguistics (McNeill, D. 1966 in The Genesis of Language) C#4 Individual differences in second language learning (Skehan, P. 1989) C#5
A model of adult second language performance (Krashen, S. 1975) C#3 Language development (Ferguson, C.A. 1968 in Language Problems of Developing Nations) C#4 “Automatic linguistic annotation of large scale L2 databases: The EF-Cambridge open language database” (Geertzen, J., Alexopoulou, T., Korhonen, A. 2013 in Proceedings of the 31st Second Language Research Forum) C#4
“Interlanguage” (Selinker, L. 1972 IRAL) C#3 Schemata: The building blocks of cognition (Rumelhart, D. E. 1980) C#4 Continuing discourse on language: A functional perspective (Hasan, R., Matthiessen, C., Webster, J. 2005) C#4
“Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game” (Goodman, K. S. 1967 Literacy Research and Instruction) C#3 The second time around: Cognitive and social strategies in second language acquisition (Fillmore, L. W. 1976) C#4 “English language learners: Developing literacy in second-language learners-Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-Minority Children and Youth” (August, D., Shanahan, T., Escamilla, K. 2009 Journal of Literacy Research) C#4
“Second language acquisition: The pidginization hypothesis” (Schumann, J. H. 1976 Language learning) C#3 Working memory (Baddeley, A. D. 1983 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London) C#4 Practice in a second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology (DeKeyser, R. 2007) C#4
“Social factors in second language acquisition and bilinguality” (Gardner, R. C. 1975 Research Bulletin) C#3 “An analysis of story comprehension in elementary school children: A test of a schema” (Stein, N. L., Glenn, C. G. 1975 New Directions in Discourse Processing) C#3 Speaking: From intention to articulation (Levelt, W. J. 1993) C#4
Some issues relating to the monitor model (Krashen, S. 1977) C#3 “Easifying second language learning” (Cohen, A. D., & Aphek, E. 1981 Studies in Second Language Acquisition) C#3 Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (Cohen, J. 1988) C#4
Teaching English as a second language (Allen, H., Cambell, R. 1972) C#3 “Idiosyncratic dialects and error analysis” (Corder, S. P. 1971 IRAL) C#3 The acquisition of temporality in a second language (Dietrich, R., Klein, W., Noyau, C. 1995) C#4
“The logic of non-standard English” (Labov, W. 1969 Georgetown Monographs on Language and Linguistics) C#3 Individual differences in second language learning (Skehan, P. 1989) C#3 Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (VanPatten, B., Keating, G. D., Wulff, S. 2007) C#4
“The role of formal and informal environments in second language learning: A pilot study” (Krashen, S. D., Seliger, H. W. 1976 Linguistics) C#3 “Interlanguage” (Selinker, L. 1972 IRAL) C#3 Working memory (Baddeley, A. D. 1983 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London) C#4
Age differences in second language acquisition (Snow, C. E., Hoefnagel-Höhle, M. 1975) C#2 “Investigating linguistic acceptability with Egyptian EFL students” (Tucker, G. R., Sarofim, M. 1979 TESOL Quarterly) C#3 Handbook of cognitive linguistics and second language acquisition (Robinson, P., Ellis, N. C. 2008) C#3
“A brief reappraisal of contrastive linguistics” (Selinker, L. 1972 University of Hawaii Working Papers in Linguistics) C#2 Metacognitive skills and reading (Baker, L. 1984 in Handbook of Reading Research) C#3 Advancing quantitative methods in second language research (Plonsky, L. 2015) C#3
A cross-sectional study of morpheme acquisition in first language learners (Porter, J. H. 1975) C#2 “Phonological processes in second language acquisition: Another look at interlanguage syllable structure” (Sato, C. J. 1984 Language learning) C#3 Alternative approaches to second language acquisition (Atkinson, D. 2011) C#3
A functor acquisition hierarchy study in Puerto Rico (Andersen, R. 1976) C#2 “Primary French in the balance” (Burstall, C. 1975 Educational Research) C#3 Attention (Schmidt, R. 2001 in Cognition and Second Language Instruction) C#3
A Japanese child learns English (Milon, J. 1972) C#2 “Reading and summarizing challenging texts in first and second languages” (Cumming, A., Rebuffot, J., Ledwell, M. 1989 Reading and Writing) C#3 “Collaborative dialogue: Its contribution to second language learning” (Swain, M. 1997 Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses) C#3
A Spanish-speaking adolescent’s acquisition of English syntax (Butterworth, G., Hatch, E. 1978 in Second Language Acquisition: A Book of Readings) C#2 “Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game” (Goodman, K. S. 1967 Literacy Research and Instruction) C#3 Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (Council of Europe, Council for cultural Co-operation, education Committee, Modern languages division 2001) C#3
A study of the non-standard English of negro and Puerto Rican speakers in New York City (Labov, W., Cohen, P., Robins, C., Lewis, J. 1968) C#2 Research on written composition: New directions for teaching (Hillocks, G. 1986) C#3 Cours de linguistique générale (De Saussure, F. 1916) C#3
Acquisition of English structures: A case study of an adult native speaker of Arabic in an English-speaking environment (Hanania, E. 1974) C#2 “Second language acquisition: The pidginization hypothesis” (Schumann, J. H. 1976 Language learning) C#3 Interfaces between second language acquisition and language testing research (Bachman, L. F., Cohen, A. D. 1998) C#3

  1. The titles of journal papers are enclosed in double quotation marks.

Appendix 7: Most contributing authors (IRAL)

1963–1979 (296 authors in total) 1980–1999 (325 authors in total) 2000–2022 (624 authors in total)
Delattre P. (C#11) Nehls D. (C#9) Dewaele J.-M. (C#6)
Nehls D. (C#7) Nickel G. (C#8) Taguchi N. (C#5)
Vermeer H.J. (C#7) Zughoul M.R. (C#7) García Mayo, M.P. (C#5)
Nickel G. (C#4) Fetzer A. (C#6) Oxford R.L. (C#4)
Zydatiß W. (C#4) Westney P. (C#5) Roberts L. (C#4)
Bennett W.A. (C#4) Joseph J. (C#5) Benati A. (C#4)
Politzer R.L. (C#4) Bader Y. (C#4) Gilabert R. (C#4)
Lane H. (C#3) Lennon P. (C#4) Lindqvist C. (C#4)
Foster D.W. (C#3) Kakouriotis A. (C#4) Muñoz C. (C#4)
Jernudd B.H. (C#3) Major R.C. (C#3) Poehner M.E. (C#3)
Hans F. (C#3) Takashima H. (C#3) Vedder I. (C#3)
Malmberg B. (C#3) Leitner G. (C#3) McDonough K. (C#3)
Oller J.W., Jr. (C#3) Zydatiß W. (C#3) Lee J.F. (C#3)
Cook V.J. (C#3) Tadeusz P. (C#3) Robinson P.J. (C#3)
Barrutia R. (C#3) Taylor D.S. (C#3) Yuan B. (C#3)
Birkenmaier W. (C#3) Hammerly H. (C#3) Tavakoli P. (C#3)
Bauer E.W. (C#3) Andrews I. (C#3) Bardel C. (C#3)
Sager J.C. (C#3) Pottier B. (C#3) Soler E.A. (C#3)
Keil R.-D. (C#3) Nakuma C.K. (C#2) Berthele R. (C#3)
Wode H. (C#2) Dewaele J.-M. (C#2) Rothman J. (C#3)

  1. The number of articles they contributed during the period is in brackets. The authors who contributed to each period’s top 20 highly-cited papers are bolded.

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Supplementary Material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2022-0088).


Received: 2022-04-25
Accepted: 2022-04-26
Published Online: 2022-05-16

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