Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Oldenbourg January 22, 2021

When does the driver feel ready to drive again after automated driving? – A qualitative approach

Lara Scatturin ORCID logo, Rainer Erbach and Martin Baumann


In automated driving, getting ready to drive after a take-over is one of the most crucial topics. Whereas previous research mainly focuses on behavioral data, little is known about the driver’s experience. In this simulator study, the participants are asked retrospectively when they felt ready to drive again after the take-over. The results suggest that driver availability is a subjectively and situationally influenced concept determined by motoric, temporal, visual, or cognitive factors. Identifying the relevant factors contributes to the development of tailored support during the transition.


Funding source: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie

Award Identifier / Grant number: 19A16006A

Funding statement: This work was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (ID: 19A16006A).


The authors thank Ramona Schmid and Harald Schröder for their help with programming the experiment and analyzing the data.


1. Mohamed T. Alrefaie, Stever Summerskill, and Thomas W. Jackon. 2019. In a heart beat: Using driver’s physiological changes to determine the quality of a takeover in highly automated vehicles. Accident Analysis and Prevention 131, 180–190. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2019.06.011.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

2. Sven Altenburg, Hans-Paul Kienzler, and Alex Auf der Maur. 2018. Einführung von Automatisierungsfunktionen in der Pkw-Flotte. Auswirkungen auf Bestand und Sicherheit. Study by Prognos AG on behalf of ADAC e. V. (2018). Retrieved June 19, 2020 from https://​​/​uploads/​tx_atwpubdb/​ADAC_Automatisiertes_Fahren_Endbericht_final.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

3. Douglas G. Altman. 1990. Practical Statistics for Medical Research. CRC Press.10.1201/9780429258589Search in Google Scholar

4. Atomic Motion Systems. A-Series Motion Systems. Retrieved May 5, 2020 from https://​​/​motion-systems/​.Search in Google Scholar

5. P. Bazilinskyy, S. M. Petermeijer, V. Petrovych, D. Dodou, and J. C. F. de Winter. 2018. Take-over requests in highly automated driving: A crowdsourcing survey on auditory, vibrotactile, and visual displays. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 56, 82–98. DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2018.04.001.Search in Google Scholar

6. Richard A. Block, Peter A. Hancock, and Dan Zakay. 2010. How cognitive load affects duration judgments: A meta-analytic review. Acta Psychologica 134(3), 330–343.10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.03.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

7. Jacob Cohen. 1988. Statistical Power Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Hillsdale, NJ.Search in Google Scholar

8. Mica R. Endsley. 1995. Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Human Factors 37(1,) 32–64.10.1518/001872095779049543Search in Google Scholar

9. Anna Feldhütter, Christian Gold, Sonja Schneider, and Klaus Bengler. 2017. How the duration of automated driving influences take-over performance and gaze behavior. In: Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes, pp. 309–318. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-53305-5_22.Search in Google Scholar

10. Christian Gold, Daniel Damböck, Lutz Lorenz, and Klaus Bengler. 2013. “Take over!” How long does it take to get the driver back into the loop? Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 57(1), 1938–1942. DOI: 10.1177/1541931213571433.Search in Google Scholar

11. Christian Gold, Riender Happee, and Klaus Bengler. 2018. Modeling take-over performance in level 3 conditionally automated vehicles. Accident Analysis and Prevention 116, 3–13. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.009.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

12. Lutz Lorenz, Philipp Kerschbaum, and Josef Schumann. 2014. Designing take over scenarios for automated driving. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 58(1), 1681–1685. DOI: 10.1177/1541931214581351.Search in Google Scholar

13. Claus Marberger, Holger Mielenz, Frederik Naujoks, Jonas Radlmayr, Klaus Bengler, and Bernhard Wandtner. 2017. Understanding and applying the concept of “driver availability” in automated driving. In: International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, pp. 595–605. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-60441-1_58.Search in Google Scholar

14. Philipp Mayring. 2014. Qualitative content analysis: theoretical foundation, basic procedures and software solution.10.1007/978-94-017-9181-6_13Search in Google Scholar

15. Rod McCall, Fintan McGee, Alexander Mirnig, Alexander Meschtscherjakov, Nicolas Louveton, Thomas Engel, and Manfred Tscheligi. 2019. A taxonomy of autonomous vehicle handover situations. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 124, 507–522. DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2018.05.005.Search in Google Scholar

16. Anthony D. McDonald, Hananeh Alambeigi, Johan Engström, Gustav Markkula, Tobias Vogelpohl, Jarrett Dunne, and Norbert Yuma. 2019. Toward computational simulations of behavior during automated driving takeovers: a review of the empirical and modeling literatures. Human Factors 61(4), 642–688.10.1177/0018720819829572Search in Google Scholar PubMed

17. Natasha Merat, A. H. Jamson, Frank C. H. Lai, Michael Daly, and Oliver M. J. Carsten. 2014. Transition to manual: Driver behaviour when resuming control from a highly automated vehicle. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 27, 274–282. DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2014.09.005.Search in Google Scholar

18. Frederik Naujoks, Christoph Mai, and Alexandra Neukum. 2014. The effect of urgency of take-over requests during highly automated driving under distraction conditions. Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation 7(I), 431.10.54941/ahfe100646Search in Google Scholar

19. Frederik Naujoks, Christian Purucker, Katharina Wiedemann, and Claus Marberger. 2019. Noncritical state transitions during conditionally automated driving on German freeways: Effects of non-driving related tasks on takeover time and takeover quality. Human Factors 614, 596–613. DOI: 10.1177/0018720818824002.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

20. Frederik Naujoks, Katharina Wiedemann, Nadja Schömig, Sebastian Hergeth, and Andreas Keinath. 2019. Towards guidelines and verification methods for automated vehicle HMIs. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 60, 121–136. DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2018.10.012.Search in Google Scholar

21. Frederik Naujoks, Katharina Wiedemann, Nadja Schömig, Oliver Jarosch, and Christian Gold. 2018. Expert-based controllability assessment of control transitions from automated to manual driving. MethodsX 5, 579–592. DOI: 10.1016/j.mex.2018.05.007.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

22. Ina Othersen, Ina Petermann-Stock, Nadja Schoemig, and Tanja Fuest. 2018. Method development and interaction cognitive driver take-over ability after piloted driving. ATZelektronik Worldwide 13(2), 28–33. DOI: 10.1007/s38314-018-0015-z.Search in Google Scholar

23. Sebastiaan Petermeijer, Pavlo Bazilinskyy, Klaus Bengler, and Joost de Winter. 2017. Take-over again: Investigating multimodal and directional TORs to get the driver back into the loop. Applied Ergonomics 62, 204–215. DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2017.02.023.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

24. Sebastiaan Petermeijer, Fabian Doubek, and Joost de Winter. 2017. Driver response times to auditory, visual, and tactile take-over requests: A simulator study with 101 participants. In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). IEEE, pp. 1505–1510. DOI: 10.1109/SMC.2017.8122827.Search in Google Scholar

25. I. Politis, S. Brewster, and F. Pollick. 2015. Language-based multimodal displays for the handover of control in autonomous cars. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, pp. 3–10.10.1145/2799250.2799262Search in Google Scholar

26. Jonas Radlmayr, Christian Gold, Lutz Lorenz, Mehdi Farid, and Klaus Bengler. 2014. How traffic situations and non-driving related tasks affect the take-over quality in highly automated driving. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 58(1), 2063–2067. DOI: 10.1177/1541931214581434.Search in Google Scholar

27. Jonas Radlmayr, Madeleine Ratter, Anna Feldhütter, Moritz Körber, Lorenz Prasch, Jonas Schmidtler, Yucheng Yang, and Klaus Bengler. 2019. Take-overs in level 3 automated driving – proposal of the Take-Over Performance Score (TOPS). In: Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander and Yushi Fujita (Eds.) Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018), Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 436–446. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-96074-6_46.Search in Google Scholar

28. SAE International. 2016. Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-road Motor Vehicles.Search in Google Scholar

29. Lara Scatturin, Rainer Erbach, and Martin Baumann. 2020. “Left!”–“right!”–“follow!” verbalization of action decisions for measuring the cognitive take-over process. In: 12th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (AutomotiveUI ’20), pp. 233–240.10.1145/3409120.3410661Search in Google Scholar

30. Tobii AB. 2020. Tobii Pro Glasses 2 (2020). Retrieved May 5, 2020 from: https://​​/​product-listing/​tobii-pro-glasses-2/​.Search in Google Scholar

31. Bernhard Wandtner, Gerald Schmidt, Nadja Schoemig, and Wilfried Kunde. 2018. Non-driving related tasks in highly automated driving – effects of task modalities and cognitive workload on take-over performance. In: AmE 2018 – Automotive meets Electronics; 9th GMM-Symposium, pp. 1–6.Search in Google Scholar

32. Joost C. F. de Winter, Riender Happee, Marieke H. Martens, and Neville A. Stanton. 2014. Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness: A review of the empirical evidence. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 27, 196–217.10.1016/j.trf.2014.06.016Search in Google Scholar

33. Philipp Wintersberger, Paul Green, and Andreas Riener. 2017. Am I driving or are you or are we both? A taxonomy for handover and handback in automated driving. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design: Driving Assessment 2017. University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, pp. 333–339. DOI: 10.17077/drivingassessment.1655.Search in Google Scholar

34. Würzburg Institute for Traffic Sciences GmbH. Driving Simulation and SILAB. Retrieved May 5, 2020 from https://​​/​en/​silab.Search in Google Scholar

35. Sol H. Yoon and Yong G. Ji. 2019. Non-driving-related tasks, workload, and takeover performance in highly automated driving contexts. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 60, 620–631. DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2018.11.015.Search in Google Scholar

36. Sol H. Yoon, Young W. Kim, and Yong G. Ji. 2019. The effects of takeover request modalities on highly automated car control transitions. Accident; Analysis and Prevention 123, 150–158. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.11.018.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

37. Kathrin Zeeb, Manuela Härtel, Axel Buchner, and Michael Schrauf. 2017. Why is steering not the same as braking? The impact of non-driving related tasks on lateral and longitudinal driver interventions during conditionally automated driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 50, 65–79. DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2017.07.008.Search in Google Scholar

38. Bo Zhang, Joost de Winter, Silvia Varotto, Riender Happee, and Marieke Martens. 2019. Determinants of take-over time from automated driving: A meta-analysis of 129 studies. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 64, 285–307. DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2019.04.020.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-07-08
Revised: 2020-11-11
Accepted: 2021-01-12
Published Online: 2021-01-22
Published in Print: 2021-06-25

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Scroll Up Arrow