Persuasive argumentation depends on multiple aspects, which include not only the content of the individual arguments, but also the way they are presented. The presentation of arguments is crucial – in particular in the context of dialogical argumentation. However, the effects of different discussion styles on the listener are hard to isolate in human dialogues. In order to demonstrate and investigate various styles of argumentation, we propose a multi-agent system in which different aspects of persuasion can be modelled and investigated separately. Our system utilizes argument structures extracted from text-based reviews for which a minimal bias of the user can be assumed. The persuasive dialogue is modelled as a dialogue game for argumentation that was motivated by the objective to enable both natural and flexible interactions between the agents. In order to support a comparison of factual against affective persuasion approaches, we implemented two fundamentally different strategies for both agents: The logical policy utilizes deep Reinforcement Learning in a multi-agent setup to optimize the strategy with respect to the game formalism and the available argument. In contrast, the emotional policy selects the next move in compliance with an agent emotion that is adapted to user feedback to persuade on an emotional level. The resulting interaction is presented to the user via virtual avatars and can be rated through an intuitive interface.
Funding source: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
Award Identifier / Grant number: 376696351
Funding statement: This work has been funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the project “How to Win Arguments – Empowering Virtual Agents to Improve their Persuasiveness”, Grant Number 376696351, as part of the Priority Program “Robust Argumentation Machines (RATIO)” (SPP-1999).
About the authors
Niklas Rach studied Physics at Ulm University, Germany and received his M.Sc. in 2015. He is currently pursuing a joint Ph. D. in the Dialogue Systems group at Ulm University and the Ubiquitous Computing Systems laboratory at Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan. His research interests are centered around dialogue management with an emphasis on computational argumentation in dialogue systems and machine learning applications.
Klaus Weber studied Computer Science at Augsburg University, Germany and received his M.Sc. in Computer Science in 2017, and his specialised M.Sc. in Computer Science and Multimedia in 2019. He is currently doing a Doctoral Degree (rer. nat.) in Computer Science in the Human-Centered AI group at Augsburg University. His research interests focus on human-agent interactions and real-time adaptation of agents to humans with an emphasis on investigating biases caused by subliminal argumentation.
Yuchi Yang received his M.Sc. in Computer Engineering at Ulm University in 2019. He is currently employed as Data Scientist at AXA Konzern AG.
Dr. Stefan Ultes received his doctorate in engineering (Ph. D.) from Ulm University (Germany) in 2015. Afterwards, he was a Research Associate at the Spoken Dialogue Systems Group at the University of Cambridge working with Prof. Steve Young and Prof. Milica Gasic. He is currently employed as Dialogue Research Lead at Mercedes Benz Research & Development.
Prof. Elisabeth André received her Doctoral Degree in 1995 at Saarland University. She is a full professor at Augsburg University, Germany, since 2001. Her group currently consists of 20+ members, most of whom work on topics related to multimodal human-computer interaction, virtual agents and social robots. She is a very well-known researcher at the intersection of Human-Computer Interaction and Artificial Intelligence. She is both an elected member of the Sigchi Academy and a EurAI fellow. She is the Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Trans. on Affective Computing. In 2019, she was named by the German Society of Informatics (GI) as one of the most influential personalities in the history of German AI. In 2021, she was awarded with the Leibniz Prize for establishing the research field of conversational emotional agents in the field of artificial intelligence.
Prof. Wolfgang Minker received his Doctoral Degree in Engineering Science at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany in 1997 and a Doctoral Degree in Computer Science from Université Paris-Sud, France in 1998. Since 2003 he is a full professor at Ulm University, Germany and also became a Co-Director of the International Research Laboratory Multimodal Biometric and Speech Systems at ITMO University St. Petersburg, Russia in 2017. The research at his group is focused on dialogue systems with special interest in adaptive and proactive spoken language dialogue interaction and argumentative dialogue systems.
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