Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 3, 2022

Evaluation of QZSS orbit and clock products for real-time positioning applications

Brian Bramanto ORCID logo and Irwan Gumilar ORCID logo


The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) is the recent Japanese satellite positioning system to enhance the positioning accuracy in Japan’s urban areas. Additionally, they provide precise orbit and clock corrections and can be obtained through their experimental signals (LEX), streaming access, and published site. Multi-GNSS Advanced Demonstration tool for Orbit and Clock Analysis (MADOCA) is one of the precise products offered in QZSS services that can be obtained on a global scale. In this study, we evaluated the performance of MADOCA orbit and clock corrections, particularly for real-time positioning applications using LEX signals. Based on the simulation, we predict that 16 countries in the East Asia and Oceania regions will gain the maximum benefit of the LEX signals. However, we stress that one may have difficulties decoding the LEX signals at regions where only one QZSS satellite is observed. During our sailing expedition at Sumatran Sea, we could only decode up to 37 % LEX signals for the observation period. It profoundly increased up to 95 % at Sulawesi Strait where at least three QZSS satellites with an elevation angle of, at its minimum, 40° were observed. The orbit and clock accuracy is estimated to be 5.2 cm and 0.6 ns with respect to International GNSS Service (IGS) final products. Our simulation of using the Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (RTPPP) method revealed that the accuracy of the corresponding positioning applications was less than one decimeter. Further, we compared the MADOCA products for RTPPP applications with Apex5 positioning solutions in static field observations. The positioning accuracy for MADOCA-RTPPP during the field observations was estimated to be centimeter to decimeter level and is slightly worse than Apex5 positioning solutions. Nevertheless, we highlight vast positioning applications using MADOCA-RTPPP, e. g., survey and mapping, smart agriculture, and offshore engineering navigation.

Funding statement: We received no additional funding for this study.


We would like to acknowledge the Magellan System Japan, Inc. and PT Geotronix Pratama Indonesia for providing GNSS receivers and for the technical support made for this study. We also acknowledge CDDIS [58] and JAXA for providing orbit and clock products used in this study. The National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN) (formerly the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT)) is kindly acknowledged for providing the research vessel of Baruna Jaya IV. The editor and three anonymous reviewers are greatly appreciated for their constructive suggestions.


[1] JAXA. Launch Result of the First Quasi-Zenith Satellite ‘MICHIBIKI’ by H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 18, 2010. URL in Google Scholar

[2] Cabinet Office. QZS-1 Control Will be Transferred to the Cabinet Office, Followed by an Adjustment Period Before the Trial Service Start. URL in Google Scholar

[3] GPS World. Japan’s QZSS service now officially available. URL in Google Scholar

[4] Mitsuru Kita. The road to launch the successor to the first machine, which the Cabinet Office official talks about in Tanegashima, 2001. URL in Google Scholar

[5] Caleb Henry. Japan mulls seven-satellite QZSS system as a GPS backup, 2017. URL in Google Scholar

[6] Satoshi Kogure, A.S. Ganeshan, and Oliver Montenbruck. Regional Systems. In Peter J.G. Teunissen and Oliver Montenbruck, editors, Springer Handbook of Global Navigation Satellite Systems. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2017. ISBN 978-3-319-42926-7.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Xin Liu, Shubi Zhang, Qiuzhao Zhang, and Wei Yang. An extended ADOP for performance evaluation of single-frequency single-epoch positioning by BDS/GPS in Asia-Pacific Region. Sensors, 17 (10), 2017. ISSN 14248220. 10.3390/s17102254.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[8] Suelynn Choy, Ken Harima, Yong Li, Mazher Choudhury, Chris Rizos, Yaka Wakabayashi, and Satoshi Kogure. GPS precise point positioning with the japanese quasi-zenith satellite system LEX augmentation corrections. J. Navig., 68: 769–783, 2015. ISSN 14697785. 10.1017/S0373463314000915.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Safoora Zaminpardaz, Kan Wang, and Peter J.G. Teunissen. Australia-first high-precision positioning results with new Japanese QZSS regional satellite system. GPS Solut., 22 (101): 1–14, 2018. ISSN 15211886. 10.1007/s10291-018-0763-5.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Tadashi Sasakawa and Takashi Ikeda. Current Status of QZSS and Pilot Experiments in South East Asia. In Phung Duc Long and Nguyen Tien Dung, editors, Geotechnics for Sustainable Infrastructure Development, volume 62, pages 1191–1196. Springer Singapore, 2020. ISBN 9789811521843. 10.1007/978-981-15-2184-3_156.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Hiep Hoang-Van, Tu Nguyen Thi Thanh, and Vinh La The. An evaluation of precise point positioning using QZSS LEX signal in Vietnam. In NICS 2016 – Proceedings of 2016 3rd National Foundation for Science and Technology Development Conference on Information and Computer Science, pages 234–239, 2016. 10.1109/NICS.2016.7725657.Search in Google Scholar

[12] I. Gumilar, R.Y. Ananta, B. Bramanto, H.Z. Abidin, Surono, and N. Kishimoto. Initial Performance Assessment of GNSS Augmentation System using Quasi-Zenith Satellite System for Real-Time Precise Positioning Method in Indonesia. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 767 (012021), 2021a. ISSN 17551315. 10.1088/1755-1315/767/1/012021.Search in Google Scholar

[13] A. Pahlevi and D. Pangastuti. Indonesian Geospatial Reference System 2013 and Its Implementation on Positioning. In FIG Congress 2014, pages 1–12, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[14] I. Gumilar, B. Bramanto, R.Y. Ananta, D. Haryanto, H.Z. Abidin, Surono, and N. Kishimoto. Performance Assessment of GNSS Augmentation System Using Quasi-Zenith Satellite System for Real-time Precise Positioning Method in Indonesia. Int. J. Geospat. Environ., 8 (2), 2021b. URL in Google Scholar

[15] JAXA. MADOCA Products, 2020. URL in Google Scholar

[16] Eiko Saito, Nobuaki Kubo, and Kazumasa Shimoda. Performance Evaluation and Future Application of Real-Time PPP Product in Japan. In Proceedings of the 2016 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, Monterey, California, pages 1030–1040, 2016. 10.33012/2016.13482.Search in Google Scholar

[17] Cabinet Office. Quasi-Zenith Satellite System Interface Specification Centimeter Level Augmentation Service (IS-QZSS-L6-001). Technical report, 2018. URL in Google Scholar

[18] Shaocheng Zhang, Shikang Du, Wei Li, and Guangxing Wang. Evaluation of the gps precise orbit and clock corrections from madoca real-time products. Sensors, 19 (2580), 2019. ISSN 14248220. 10.3390/s19112580.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[19] JAXA. Interface Specification for MADOCA – SEAD. Technical report, 2019. URL in Google Scholar

[20] J. Betz. Engineering Satellite-Based Navigation and Timing-Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Signals, and Receivers. Wiley-IEEE Press, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2016.10.1002/9781119141167Search in Google Scholar

[21] Cabinet Office. Interface Specification for QZSS (Quasi-Zenith Satellite System), 2012. URL in Google Scholar

[22] J.F. Zumberge, M.B. Heflin, D.C. Jefferson, M.M. Watkins, and F.H. Webb. Precise point positioning for the efficient and robust analysis of GPS data from large networks. J. Geophys. Res., 102 (B3): 5005–5017, 1997. ISSN 2156-2202. 10.1029/96jb03860.Search in Google Scholar

[23] Cemal Ozer Yigit, M. Zeki Coskun, Hakan Yavasoglu, Abdullah Arslan, and Yunus Kalkan. The potential of GPS Precise Point Positioning method for point displacement monitoring: A case study. Measurement, 91: 398–404, 2016. ISSN 02632241. 10.1016/j.measurement.2016.05.074.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Nguyen Ngoc Lau, Richard Coleman, and Ha Minh Hoa. Determination of tectonic velocities of some continuously operating reference stations (CORS) in Vietnam 2016–2018 by using precise point positioning. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 43 (1): 1–12, dec 2020. ISSN 0866-7187. 10.15625/0866-7187/15571.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Susilo, Irwan Meilano, Thomas Hardy, Muhammad Al Kautsar, Dina A. Sarsito, and Joni Efendi. Rapid Estimation of Earthquake Magnitude using GNSS Data. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 873 (012063), 2021. ISSN 1755-1307. 10.1088/1755-1315/873/1/012063.Search in Google Scholar

[26] Teng Liu, Baocheng Zhang, Yunbin Yuan, and Min Li. Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (RTPPP) with raw observations and its application in real-time regional ionospheric VTEC modeling. J. Geod., 92 (11): 1267–1283, 2018. ISSN 14321394. 10.1007/s00190-018-1118-2.Search in Google Scholar

[27] G. Weber, L. Mervart, Z. Lukes, C. Rocken, and J. Dousa. Real-time clock and orbit corrections for improved point positioning via NTRIP. In Proceedings of ION-GNSS-2007, Institute of Navigation, Fort Worth, TX, USA, pages 1992–1998, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

[28] G. Xu. GPS: Theory, Algorithms and Applications. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

[29] A. Kleusberg and P.J.G. Teunissen. GPS for geodesy. Springer, 1996.10.1007/BFb0117676Search in Google Scholar

[30] J.A.N. Kouba and Pierre Heroux. Precise Point Positioning Using IGS and Clock Products. GPS Solut., 5 (2): 12–28, 2001. 10.1007/PL00012883.Search in Google Scholar

[31] Nur Surayatul Atikah Alihan, Dudy DarmawanWijaya, Ami Hassan Md Din, Brian Bramanto, and Abdullah Hisam Omar. Spatiotemporal Variations of Earth Tidal Displacement over Peninsular Malaysia Based on GPS Observations. In Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, volume 9, pages 809–823. 2019. ISBN 9789811080166. 10.1007/978-981-10-8016-6_59.Search in Google Scholar

[32] Z. Deng, M. Fritsche, T. Nischan, and M. Bradke. Multi-GNSS Ultra Rapid Orbit-, Clock- & EOP Product Series, GFZ Data Services. Technical report, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[33] Shilpa Manandhar and Yu Song Meng. Assessment of IGS ultra-rapid products for near real-time steering of UTC time scale in Singapore. Measurement: Sensors, 18 (100194), dec 2021. ISSN 26659174. 10.1016/j.measen.2021.100194.Search in Google Scholar

[34] T. Takasu. RTKLIB ver 2.4.2 manual. Technical report, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

[35] Brian Bramanto, Irwan Gumilar, Teguh P. Sidiq, Wedyanto Kuntjoro, and A. Daniel. Sensing of the atmospheric variation using Low Cost GNSS Receiver. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 149 (012073), 2018.10.1088/1755-1315/149/1/012073Search in Google Scholar

[36] IGS. Products. PhD thesis. URL in Google Scholar

[37] Cabinet Office. Quasi-Zenith Satellite System Interface Specification Centimeter Level Augmentation Service (IS-QZSS-L6-004). Technical report, 2021. URL in Google Scholar

[38] Oliver Montenbruck, Peter Steigenberger, and André Hauschild. Broadcast versus precise ephemerides: a multi-GNSS perspective. GPS Solut., 19: 321–333, 2015. ISSN 15211886. 10.1007/s10291-014-0390-8.Search in Google Scholar

[39] Yibin Yao, Yadong He, Wenting Yi, Weiwei Song, Cheng Cao, and Ming Chen. Method for evaluating real-time GNSS satellite clock offset products. GPS Solut., 21: 1417–1425, 2017. ISSN 15211886. 10.1007/s10291-017-0619-4.Search in Google Scholar

[40] Kamil Kazmierski, Krzysztof Sośnica, and Tomasz Hadas. Quality assessment of multi-GNSS orbits and clocks for real-time precise point positioning. GPS Solutions, 22 (11), jan 2018. ISSN 1080-5370. 10.1007/s10291-017-0678-6.Search in Google Scholar

[41] Georgia Katsigianni, Sylvain Loyer, and Felix Perosanz. PPP and PPP-AR Kinematic Post-Processed Performance of GPS-Only, Galileo-Only and Multi-GNSS. Remote Sens., 11 (2477), oct 2019. ISSN 2072-4292. 10.3390/rs11212477.Search in Google Scholar

[42] Gérard Petit and Brian Luzum. IERS Technical Note No. 36, IERS Conventions (2010). Technical report, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

[43] Loren Carrere, Florent Lyard, Mathilde Cancet, and Amandine Guillot. FES 2014, a new tidal model on the global ocean with enhanced accuracy in shallow seas and in the Arctic region. In EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, volume 17, page 5481, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[44] Xingxing Li, Xiaohong Zhang, Xiaodong Ren, Mathias Fritsche, Jens Wickert, and Harald Schuh. Precise positioning with current multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. Sci. Rep., 5 (8328), jul 2015. ISSN 2045-2322. 10.1038/srep08328.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[45] R. Dach, S. Lutz, P. Walser, and P. Fridez. Bernese GNSS Software Version 5.2. User manual. Technical report, Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[46] Veripos. Apex Satellite Correction Services. URL in Google Scholar

[47] W.J.F. Simons, A. Socquet, C. Vigny, B.A.C. Ambrosius, S. Haji Abu, Chaiwat Promthong, C. Subarya, D.A. Sarsito, S. Matheussen, P. Morgan, and W. Spakman. A decade of GPS in Southeast Asia: Resolving Sundaland motion and boundaries. J. Geophys. Res., 112 (B06420), jun 2007. ISSN 0148-0227. 10.1029/2005JB003868.Search in Google Scholar

[48] A. Koulali, S. McClusky, S. Susilo, Y. Leonard, P. Cummins, P. Tregoning, I. Meilano, J. Efendi, and A.B. Wijanarto. The kinematics of crustal deformation in Java from GPS observations: Implications for fault slip partitioning. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 458: 69–79, 2017. ISSN 0012821X. 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.10.039.Search in Google Scholar

[49] Hongyang Ma, Qile Zhao, Sandra Verhagen, Dimitrios Psychas, and Xianglin Liu. Assessing the Performance of Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK in the Local Area. Remote Sens., 12 (3343), oct 2020. ISSN 2072-4292. 10.3390/rs12203343.Search in Google Scholar

[50] Hadi Karimi. An analysis of satellite visibility and single point positioning with GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou-2/3. Appl. Geomat., 13: 781–791, 2021. ISSN 1866-9298. 10.1007/s12518-021-00391-2.Search in Google Scholar

[51] Irwan Gumilar, Brian Bramanto, A.I. Pamungkas, H.Z. Abidin, and F.S. Adi. Contribution of BeiDou Positioning System for Accuracy Improvement: A Perspective from Bandung, Indonesia. J. Aeronaut. Astronaut. Aviat. Ser., 49 (3): 171–184, 2017. 10.6125/17-0202-930.Search in Google Scholar

[52] Brian Bramanto, Irwan Gumilar, Hasanuddin Z. Abidin, Kosasih Prijatna, and Fajar S. Adi. Assessment of the BeiDou Data Quality and the Positioning Performance: A Perspective from Bandung, Indonesia. J. Aeronaut. Astronaut. Aviat. Ser., 49 (2): 111–124, 2017. ISSN 19907710. 10.6125/17-0202-929.Search in Google Scholar

[53] Irwan Gumilar, B. Bramanto, Wedyanto Kuntjoro, H.Z. Abidin, and N.F. Trihantoro. Contribution of BeiDou satellite system for long baseline GNSS measurement in Indonesia. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 149 (01070), 2018.10.1088/1755-1315/149/1/012070Search in Google Scholar

[54] Xiangdong An, Xiaolin Meng, and Weiping Jiang. Multi-constellation GNSS precise point positioning with multi-frequency raw observations and dual-frequency observations of ionospheric-free linear combination. Satell. Navig., 1 (7), dec 2020. ISSN 2662-1363. 10.1186/s43020-020-0009-x.Search in Google Scholar

[55] ASPRS. ASPRS Accuracy Standards for Large-Scale Maps. Photogramm Eng Remote Sensing, 56 (7): 1068–1070, 1990.Search in Google Scholar

[56] Susilo, Hasanuddin Z. Abidin, Irwan Meilano, Kosasih Prijatna, Benyamin Sapiie, Antonius B. Wijanarto, and Joni Efendi. On the Development of Deformation Model for the Indonesian Geospatial on the Development of Deformation Model for the Indonesian Geospatial Reference System (IGRS) 2013. In FIG Working Week, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[57] IG. QZSS Replenishes 4-Satellite Constellation, Replacing Inaugural Michibiki, 2021. URL in Google Scholar

[58] Carey E. Noll. The crustal dynamics data information system: A resource to support scientific analysis using space geodesy. Adv. Space Res., 45: 1421–1440, jun 2010. ISSN 02731177. 10.1016/j.asr.2010.01.018.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-11-16
Accepted: 2022-01-06
Published Online: 2022-02-03
Published in Print: 2022-07-26

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Scroll Up Arrow