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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 11, 2023

Changes in the long-term stability of GPS, GLONASS and Galileo clocks based on the IGS repro3 campaign

  • Kamil Maciuk ORCID logo EMAIL logo , Krystian Kozioł , Karolina Krzykowska-Piotrowska and Yasemin Sisman


Time is the basis of satellite navigation systems. In precision studies, it is additionally important to ensure accuracy at the highest possible level, up to sub-millimetres. For this purpose, corrections of the clocks of satellites and GNSS reference stations are made available. This type of data is made available in real time in a navigation dispatch with an interval of 10 min–2 h depending on the GNSS system, or in a precision orbit file (interval of 15 min) or in the form of clock correction files (30 s or 300 s). This paper analyses the long-term stability of the clocks of satellites of four GNSS systems. For this purpose, IGS reprocessing data from 1994 to 2020 were used and ADEV (Allan deviation) and three related variances were adopted. The study showed the different nature of the satellite correction for each GNSS system and the increase of the stability over time.

Corresponding author: Kamil Maciuk, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland, E-mail:

Funding source: MINIATURA 5

Award Identifier / Grant number: 2021/05/X/ST10/00058

Funding source: Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanislawa Staszica

Award Identifier / Grant number:

Funding source: Science for Society

Award Identifier / Grant number: NdS/536964/2021/2021

Funding source: AGH University of Science and Technology

Award Identifier / Grant number: Initiative for Excellence Research University

  1. Author contributions: KM 55 %, KK 35 %, KKP 5 %, YS 5 %.

  2. Research funding: This work was funded by the National Science Centre as part of MINIATURA 5, application No.2021/05/X/ST10/00058; the Initiative for Excellence Research University grant from AGH University of Science and Technology, by research subvention no. and by program of the Minister of Education and Science (POLAND) called “Science for Society” project number NdS/536964/2021/2021 amount of funding PLN 1,557,100 total value of the project PLN 1,557,100.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: Authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Received: 2023-02-28
Accepted: 2023-04-24
Published Online: 2023-05-11
Published in Print: 2023-10-26

© 2023 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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