Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 14, 2017

The anti-usury arguments of the Church Fathers of the East in their historical context and the accommodation of the Church to the prevailing “credit economy” in late antiquity

  • Antigone Samellas EMAIL logo


The evidence the Church Fathers offer about the economic practices of late antiquity are often dismissed as empty rhetoric. The aim of this article is first, to examine the historical value of their arguments against usury in the light of papyrological and hagiographic sources as well as οf archaeological findings; secondly, to assess the extent to which the churches and monasteries in Syria and Egypt accommodated themselves to the “credit economy” of late antiquity; and, thirdly, to evaluate the reasons for the church’s compromise with the established credit practices and its impact on the implementation of the Christian redistributive ideals.


Adesi, Barone Giorgio. Monachesimo ortodosso d’Oriente e diritto romano nel tardo antico. Milan: Dott. Giuffré editore, 1990.Search in Google Scholar

Aglietta, Michel and André Orléan. La monnaie entre violence et confiance. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

Alcock, Anthony, translator. Shenoute of Atripe, Adversus Graecos: De Usura (A15). 2016 (accessed on 31/8/16 ).Search in Google Scholar

Allen, Pauline and C. T. R. Hayward. Severus of Antioch. London: Routledge, 2004. 10.4324/9780203338049Search in Google Scholar

Allen, Pauline and Bronwen Neil. Crisis Management in Late Antiquity (410–590 CE). A survey of the evidence from episcopal letters. Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae 121. Brill: Leiden, 2013. 10.1163/9789004254824Search in Google Scholar

Alpi, F. La Route Royale. Sévère d’Antioche et les églises d’Orient (512–518.). Vol. 1. Beyrouth: Institut Français du Proche Orient, 2009. Search in Google Scholar

Amato, E., editor. Procopius of Gaza, Op. XI. Procope de Gaze, Discours et fragments. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Arjava, Antti, et al., editors. Papyrus Petra Selz Foundation I. In The Petra Papyri III, 103–125. Amman: American Center of Oriental Research, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

Armitage, John and Joanne Roberts. “The spirit of luxury.” Cultural Politics 12 (2016): 1–22.10.1215/17432197-3436283Search in Google Scholar

Ashkenazi, Jakob. “Holy man versus monk ̶ village and monastery in the late antique Levant: between hagiography and archaeology.” JESHO 57 (2014): 745–765.10.1163/15685209-12341363Search in Google Scholar

Ast, Rodney. “Johannes Flavialis of the Transtigritani.” In Paramone: Editionen und Aufsätze von Mitgliedern des Heidelberger Instituts für Papyrologie zwischen 1982 und 2004. APF 16, edited by J. S. Cowey and B. Kramer, 136–141. München: K. G. Saur, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

Asterius of Amasea. Homilies I-XIV, edited by C. Datema. Leiden: Brill, 1970.Search in Google Scholar

Bagnall, Roger. Egypt in Late Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton U. P., 1993.10.2307/j.ctv1fkgd4pSearch in Google Scholar

Bagnall, Roger. “Village landholding at Aphrodito in comparative perspective.” In Les archives de Dioscore d’Aphrodité cent ans après leur découverte.Histoire et culture dans l’Égypte byzantine, edited by J.-L. Fournet, 181–190. Études d’archéologie et d’histoire ancienne. Paris: de Boccard, 2008.Search in Google Scholar

Bagnall, Roger, James Keenan and Leslie S. B. MacCoull. A Sixth-Century Tax Register from the Hermopolite Nome. American Studies in Papyrology 51. Durham: American Society of Papyrologists, 2011.10.3998/mpub.9749797Search in Google Scholar

Balty, Janine. “Mosaïque et architecture domestique dans l’Apamée des Ve et Vie siècles.” In Patron and Pavements in Late Antiquity, edited by S. Isager and B. Poulsen, 84–110. Odense: Odense U. P., 1997.Search in Google Scholar

Banaji, Jairus. Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity: gold, labour and aristocratic dominance. Oxford: Oxford U. P., 2001. Search in Google Scholar

Baratte, François. “Le vêtement dans l’antiquité tardive: rupture ou continuité?” AntTard 12 (2004): 121–135.10.1484/J.AT.2.300066Search in Google Scholar

Baratte, François. “Les objets précieux dans la vie économique et sociale du monde romain à la fin de l’Antiquité.” Revue Numismatique (2003): 205–216.10.3406/numi.2003.2511Search in Google Scholar

Barnish, S. J. B. “The wealth of Julianus Argentarius: Late Antique banking and the Mediterranean economy.” Byzantion 55 (1985): 5–38.Search in Google Scholar

Bartelink, G. J. M., editor. Callinicos, Vie d’Hypatios. SC 177. Paris: Cerf, 1971.Search in Google Scholar

Bazzana, Giovanni Battista. “Basileia and debt relief: the forgiveness of debts in the Lord’s Prayer in the light of documentary papyri.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 73 (2011): 511–525.Search in Google Scholar

Beckby, Hermann. “Palladas.” In Anthologia Graeca, IX-XI. München: Heimeran, 1958.Search in Google Scholar

Benaissa, Amin. “A usurious monk from the Apa Apollo monastery at Bawit.” Chronique d’Égypte 85 (2010): 375–380.10.1484/J.CDE.1.102046Search in Google Scholar

Benaissa, Amin, editor. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri LXXVI. London: Egypt Exploration Society, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

Berkes, Lajos. “An estate prison in Byzantine Egypt: PSI VII 829 reconsidered.” ZPE 193 (2015): 241–243. Search in Google Scholar

Bianci, U. “In tema d’usura. Canoni conciliari e legislazione imperiale del IV secolo.” Athenaeum 61 (1983): 321–342.Search in Google Scholar

Bidez, J. and L. Parmentier, editors. Evagrius. Ecclesiastical History. SC 542. Paris: Cerf, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

Bijovsky, Gabriela. Gold Coin and Small Change: Monetary Circulation in Fifth-Seventh Century Byzantine Palestine. Trieste: Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2014. Search in Google Scholar

Bintliff, John. “The paradoxes of Late Antiquity: a thermodynamic solution.” AntTard 20 (2012): 69–73.10.1484/J.AT.1.103093Search in Google Scholar

Bintliff, John. “Mobility and proto-capitalism in the Hellenistic and early Roman Mediterranean.” In Mobilität in den kulturen der antiken Mittelmeerwelt, edited by E. Olshausen and V. Sauer, 48–53. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Blouin, Katherine. “An Arsinoite loan of money with interest in kind from the Columbia University P. Col. Inv 46.” BASP 47 (2010): 93–110.Search in Google Scholar

Blumell, L. H. and T. Wayman, editors. Christian Oxyrhynchus. Texts, documents and sources. Waco: Baylor U. P., 2015.Search in Google Scholar

Bogaert, Raymond. “Changeurs et banquiers chez les Pères de l’Église.” Ancient Society 4 (1973): 239–270.Search in Google Scholar

Borek, Nicholas. “‘Specialized Personnel,’ The Zygostates, the Solidus and Monetary Technology in the Later Roman Empire.” 2015 (accessed on 9th September 2016). Search in Google Scholar

Brakke, David and Andrew Crislip. Selected Discourses of Shenoute the Great. Community, theology and social conflict in Late Antique Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 2015.10.1017/CBO9781139136846Search in Google Scholar

Brière, Maurice, editor. “Severus of Antioch. Hom. 81.” In Les Homiliae Cathedrales de Sévère d’Antioche. Patrologia Orientalis 20, 344–370. Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1927.Search in Google Scholar

Brière, Maurice and François Graffin, editors. “Severus of Antioch. Hom. 13.” In Les Homeliae Cathedrales de Sévère d’Antioche. Patrologia Orientalis 38, 393–397. Turnhout: Brepols, 1976.Search in Google Scholar

Brière, Maurice, editor. “Severus of Antioch. Hom. 62.” In Les Homeliae Cathedrales de Sévère d’Antioche. Patrologia Orientalis 8, 269–286. Turnhout: Brepols, 1982. Search in Google Scholar

Brière, Maurice, editor. “Severus of Antioch. Hom. 63.” In Les Homeliae Cathedrales de Sévère d’Antioche. Patrologia Orientalis 8, 287–312. Turnhout: Brepols, 1982. Search in Google Scholar

Broekaert, Wim and Arjan Zuiderhoek. “Society, the market, or actually both? Networks and the allocation of credit and capital goods in the Roman economy.” Cahiers du Centre Gustave Glotz 24 (2015): 141–190.Search in Google Scholar

Brown, Peter. Through the Eye of a Needle. Wealth, the fall of Rome, and the making of Christianity in the West, 350–550 AD. Princeton: Princeton U. P., 2012.10.1515/9781400844531Search in Google Scholar

Bryen, Ari. Violence in Roman Egypt. A study in legal interpretation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2013.10.9783/9780812208214Search in Google Scholar

Bülow-Jacobsen, A., editor. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri XLIX. London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1982.Search in Google Scholar

Calvet-Sebasti, Marie-Ange, editor. Firmus de Césarée. Lettres. SC 350. Paris: Cerf, 1989.Search in Google Scholar

Cameron, Averil. The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity AD 395–600. London: Routledge, 1993.10.4324/9780203329986Search in Google Scholar

Caner, Daniel, translator. “Life of Alexander the Sleepless.” In Wandering, Begging Monks. Spiritual Authority and the promotion of monasticism in late antiquity, 249–280. Berkeley: University of California, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

Carrié, Jean-Michel. “Les métiers de la banque entre public et privé (IVe-VIIe siècle).” In. Finanza e attività bancaria tra pubblico e privato nella tarda antichità. Definizioni, normazione, prassi. Convegno Internazionale in onore di Manlio Sargenti. Atti dell’Academia Romanistica Constantiniana 12, edited by G. Crifò and S. Giglio, 65–93. Naples: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 1999 [1998].Search in Google Scholar

Carrié, Jean-Michel. “Une orchestration exceptionnellement efficace de la protestation fiscal.” In Les Affaires de Monsieur Andreau. Économie et société du monde romain, edited by Catherine Apicella, et al., 137–157. Paris: Ausonius Éditions, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Carrié, Jean-Michel. “Solidus et Crédit: qu’est-ce que l’or a pu changer?” In Credito e moneta nel mondo romano: atti degli incontri capresi di storia dell’economia antica, edited by E. Lo Cascio, 265–279. Bari: Edipuglia, 2003. Search in Google Scholar

Casella, M., editor. Storie di ordinaria corruzione. Libanio, Orazioni LVI, LVII, XLVI. Messina: Di. Sc. Am. 2010.Search in Google Scholar

Chabot, J. B. “Synodicon Orientale.” In Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale. Vol. 37. Paris: Klincksieck, 1902.10.31826/9781463224356Search in Google Scholar

Chouliara-Raiou, Elena (Χουλιαρά-Ραΐου, Ελένη). Η Αλιεία στην Αίγυπτο υπό το φως των ελληνικών Παπύρων. Vol. 1. Ioannina: University of Ioannina, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

Chouquet, Gérard. Cadastres et fiscalité dans l’antiquité tardive. Tours: Presses Universitaires François-Rabelais, 2014.10.4000/books.pufr.13503Search in Google Scholar

Collins, Andrew and John Walsh. “Fractional reserve banking in the Roman Republic and Empire.” Ancient Society 44 (2014): 179–212.Search in Google Scholar

Concannon, Cavan. “A delayed money transfer.” BASP 47 (2010): 75–85. Search in Google Scholar

Constantelos, Demetrios J. “Clerics and secular professions in the Byzantine church.” Byzantina 13 (1985): 375–390.Search in Google Scholar

Crisafuli, Virgil S. and John W. Nisbitt, editors. The Miracles of St. Artemios. Leiden: Brill, 1997.10.1163/9789004476943Search in Google Scholar

Cuvigny, M., editor. “Plutarch, De Vit. Aere alien.” In Plutarque, Œuvres Morales. t. 12. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1981. Search in Google Scholar

Dalman, Britt, editor. Saint Daniel of Sketis. Upsalla: Wallin and Dalhom, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

De Ligt, Lukas. “Demand, supply, distribution: the Roman peasantry between town and countryside: rural monetization and peasant demands.” MBAH 9.2 (1990): 24–56.Search in Google Scholar

De Stoop, E., editor. Life of Alexander the Sleepless. Patrologia Orientalis 6, 645–704. Turnhout: Brepols, 1980 [1911].Search in Google Scholar

Decker, Michael. Tilling the Hateful Earth. Agricultural production and trade in the Late Antique East. Oxford: Oxford U. P., 2009.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199565283.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Delehaye, Hippolytus, editor. Chrysippus of Cappadocia, Presbyter of Jerusalem, Laudatio S. Theodori. In Acta Sanctorum, Novembris IV, 9–10. Bruxelles: Bureaux de la Société des bollandistes, 1925.Search in Google Scholar

Delmaire, R. “Les esclaves et condicionales fiscaux au Bas-Empire Romain.” Topoi 9 (1999): 179–189.10.3406/topoi.1999.1811Search in Google Scholar

Déroche, Vincent. Etudes sur Léontios de Néapolis. Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksell, 1996.Search in Google Scholar

Dijkstra, Jitse. “Monasticism on the southern Egyptian frontier in Late Antiquity. Towards a new critical edition of the Coptic Life of Aaron.” Journal of the Canadian Society for Coptic Studies 5 (2013): 31–47.Search in Google Scholar

Dockter, Hanno. Klerikerkritik im antiken Christentum. Bonn: Bonn U. P., 2013.Search in Google Scholar

Doran, Robert. The Lives of Simeon Stylites. Kalamazoo: Cistercian, 1992. Search in Google Scholar

Doran, Robert. Stewards of the Poor, The Man of God, Rabbula and Hiba in fifth-century Edessa. Kalamazoo: Cistercian, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

Downey, G. editor. Themistii. Orationes. Leipzig: Teubner, 1965.Search in Google Scholar

Dubuisson, Michel and Jacques Schamp, editors. Joannes Lydus, Des magistratures de l’état romain. T. 2. Paris: Belles Lettres, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

Efthymiadis, Stephanos and V. Déroche. “Greek hagiography in late antiquity (fourth-seventh Centuries).” In The Ashgate Research Companion to Byzantine Hagiography, edited by S. Efthymiadis, 35–94. Farnham: Ashgate, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

Ellis, Simon. “Late antique houses in Asia Minor.” In Patrons and Pavements in Late Antiquity, edited by S. Isager and B. Poulsen, 38–50. Odense: Southern Denmark, 1997. Search in Google Scholar

Ellis, Simon. “Early Byzantine housing.” In Secular Buildings and the Archaeology of Everyday Life in the Byzantine Empire, edited by Ken Dark, 37–51. Oxford: Oxbow, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

Eubank, Nathan. Wages of cross-bearing and Debt of Sin: the economy of heaven in Matthew’s gospel. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013.10.1515/9783110304077Search in Google Scholar

Evieux, Pierre. Isidore de Peluse. Paris: Beauchesne, 1995.10.14375/NP.9782701013015Search in Google Scholar

Fikhman, Itzak. “Aspects économiques de la dependence individuelle dans l’ Égypte romaine et tardive.” In Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im spätantiken Ägypten, edited by A. Jördens, 324–348. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

Fournet Jean-Luc and Jean Gascou. “Moines pachômiens et batellerie.” In Alexandrie medievale 2, edited by Ch. Décobert, 23–45. Le Caire: Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

Freu, Christel. “Labour status and economic stratification: the hierarchy of wages in Egypt.” JRA 28 (2015): 161–177.10.1017/S1047759415002445Search in Google Scholar

Freu, Christel. “Les contrats de travail dans l’antiquité tardive: évolution du droit, evolution d’un genre?” In Shifting Genres in Late Antiquity, edited by G. Greatrex and H. Elton, 263–276. Farnham: Ashgate, 2014Search in Google Scholar

Frösen, Jaakko, et al., editors. Papyrus Petra Thomas and Francesca Bennett. In The Petra Papyri I, 23–32. Amman: American Center of Oriental Research, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

Garnsey, Peter. “L’économie du Bas-Empire.” In Les affaires de Monsieu Andreau. Économie et société du monde romain, edited by Catherine Apicella, et al., 43–53. Paris: Ausonius Éditions, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Garzya, Andrea, editor. Synésios de Cyrène, Correspondance. T. 3. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2000. Search in Google Scholar

Giacchero, Marta. “‘Fenus,’ ‘Usura,’ ‘pignus’ e ‘fideiussio’ negli scrittori patristici del quarto secolo.” III Convegno internazionale (Perugia-Trevi 28 settembre-1 ottobre 1977). Atti dell’Academia Romanistica Constantiniana 3, 443–473. Rome: Ariacne, 1979.Search in Google Scholar

Giorda, Maria Chiara. “Familles du ‘monde’, familles monastiques. Une économie du capital dans l’Égypte chrétienne (Ve-Vie siècles).” Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 171 (2015): 263–287.10.4000/assr.27158Search in Google Scholar

Godlewski, Wlodzimierz. Le Monastère de St Phoibamon. Varsovie: Éditions Scientifiques de Pologne, 1986.Search in Google Scholar

Gofas, Demetrios “The Byzantine law of interest.” In The Economic History of Byzantium. Vol. 1, edited by Angeliki Laiou, 1095–1104. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks 2002. Search in Google Scholar

Goodrich, John. “Voluntary debt remission and the Parable of the Unjust Steward (Luke 16:1–13).” Journal of Biblical Literature 131 (2012): 547–566.10.2307/23488254Search in Google Scholar

Gregory of Nyssa. Contra Usurarios, edited by Ernestus Gebhardt. Gregorii Nysseni Opera 9. Leiden: Brill, 1967.Search in Google Scholar

Gregory of Nyssa. In Ecclesiasten Homiliae, edited by Paulus Alexander. Gregorii Nysseni Opera 5. Leiden: Brill, 1962. Search in Google Scholar

Gregory of Nyssa. Oratio Dominica, edited by J. F. Callahan. Gregorii Nysseni Opera 7.2. Leiden: Brill, 1992.Search in Google Scholar

George the Presbyter, Life of Theodore of Sykeon. In Vie de Théodore de Sykeon. T.1. Subsidia Hagiographica 48, edited by André Festugière. Bruxelles: Société des Bollandistes, 1970.Search in Google Scholar

Grey, Cam. “Slavery in the late Roman World.” In The Cambridge World History of Slavery. Vol. 1, edited by Keith Bradley and Paul Cartledge, 482–509. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 2011.10.1017/CHOL9780521840668.024Search in Google Scholar

Guichard, Laurent. “Valentinen 1er, Valens et le chrysargyre des clercs d’ après la loi CTh XIII,1,5.” In Société, économie, administration dans le Code Théodosien, edited by S. Crogiez-Pétrequin and P. Jaillette, 391–404. Lille: Septentrion, 2012.10.4000/books.septentrion.48518Search in Google Scholar

Guidi, Ignazio, editor. “Severus of Antioch, Hom. 100.” In Les Homeliae Cathedrales de Sévère d’Antioche. Patrologia Orientalis 22, 230–248.Turnhout: Brepols, 1988[1929].Search in Google Scholar

Guy, Jean-Claude, editor. Les Apophtegmes des Pères I-IX . T.1. SC 387. Paris: Cerf, 1993.Search in Google Scholar

Hall, Stuart G. and Rachel Moriarty. Gregory of Nyssa, Homilies on Ecclesiastes. An English version with supporting studies. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1993. 10.1515/9783110873184Search in Google Scholar

Harper, Jennifer. Disciples of the Desert: monks, laity and spiritual authority in sixth-century Gaza. Baltimore: John Hopkins U. P., 2005.Search in Google Scholar

Harper, Kyle. “The Greek census inscriptions of late Antiquity.” JRS 98 (2008): 83–119.10.3815/007543508786239661Search in Google Scholar

Harper, Kyle. Slavery in the Late Roman World A.D. 275–425. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 2011.10.1017/CBO9780511973451Search in Google Scholar

Hayashi, Nobuo. “Interessi nella Tarda Antichità.” In Finanza e attività bancaria tra pubblico e privato nella tarda antichità. Definizioni, normazione, prassi. Convegno Internazionale in onore di Manlio Sargenti. Atti dell’Academia Romanistica Constantiniana 12, edited by G. Crifò and S. Giglio, 319–344. Naples: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane 1998 [1999].Search in Google Scholar

Hendy, Michael. Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300–1450. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 1985.10.1017/CBO9780511896750Search in Google Scholar

Hickey, T. M. “Aristocratic landholding and the economy of Byzantine Egypt.” In Egypt in the Byzantine World 300–700, edited by R. Bagnall, 288–308. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 2007.Search in Google Scholar

Hickey, T. M. Wine, Wealth and the State in Late Antique Egypt. The house of Apion at Oxyrhynchus. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2012.10.3998/mpub.3644917Search in Google Scholar

Hillner, Julia. Prison, Punishment and Penance in Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 2015.10.1017/CBO9781139015172Search in Google Scholar

Historia Monachorum in Aegypto. Subsidia Hagiographica 53, edited by André Festugière. Bruxelles: Société des Bollandistes, 1971. Search in Google Scholar

Hollerich, Michael J. “The Alexandrians bishops and the grain trade: ecclesiastical commerce in late Roman Egypt.” JESHO 25 (1982): 187–207.10.2307/3632110Search in Google Scholar

Holum, Kenneth G. “Wealth as a ‘stethoscope’ for studying Late Antiquity.” Review of Peter Brown, Through the Eye of the Needle. Wealth, the fall of Rome and the making of Christianity in the west. Princeton, 2012.” JRA 28 (2015): 936–940.10.1017/S1047759415003372Search in Google Scholar

Hoogendijk, F. A. J. and P. Van Minnen, editors. Papyri, ostraca, parchments and waxed tablets in the Leiden Papyrological Institute (P. L. Bat. 25). Leiden: Brill, 1991.10.1163/9789004427792Search in Google Scholar

Hudson, Michael. “How interest rates were set, 2500 BC-1000 AD: máš, tokos and fœnus as metaphors for interest accruals.” JESHO 43 (2000): 132–161.10.1163/156852000511259Search in Google Scholar

Hudson, Michael. The lost tradition of Biblical debt cancellations. 1993. (accessed on October 5, 2016).Search in Google Scholar

Hübner, Sabine R. “Currencies of Power: The venality of offices in the later Roman Empire.” In The Power of Religion in Late Antiquity, edited by A. Cain and N. Lenski, 167–179. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

Iacomi, Veronica. “Some notes on late antique oil and wine production in Rough Cilicia (Isauria) in the light of epigraphic sources: funerary inscriptions from Korykos, LR 1 Amphorae production in Elaiussa Sebaste and the Abydos tariff.” In Olive Oil and Wine Production in Anatolia during Antiquity, edited by U. Aydinoğlu and A. K. Şenol, 19–33. Istanbul: Research Institute of Cilician Archaeology, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

Jones, C. P. “New late antique epigrams from Stratonicea in Caria.” EA 42 (2009): 145–151.Search in Google Scholar

Keenan, James G. “A Constantinople loan A.D. 541.” BASP 29 (1992): 175–192.Search in Google Scholar

Kloppenborg, John S. The Tenants in the Vineyard. Ideology, economics and agrarian conflict in Jewish Palestine. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

Klostermann, Erich, editor. Origen, Matthäuserklarung. GCS X. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1935.Search in Google Scholar

Kotsifou, Chrysis. “Monks as mediators in Christian Egypt.” In Law and Legal Practice in Egypt from Alexander to the Arab Conquest. A selection of papyrological sources in translation with introduction and commentary, edited by James G. Keenan et al., 530–540. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Kraemer, C., editor. Excavations at Nessana. Vol. 3. Princeton: Princeton U. P., 1958.10.1515/9781400879670Search in Google Scholar

Kreuzsaler, Claudia. “Loan contracts serving other purposes.” In Law and Legal Practice in Egypt from Alexander to the Arab Conquest. A selection of papyrological sources in translation with introduction and commentary, edited by James G. Keenan et al., 265–274. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. 2014Search in Google Scholar

Kruit, Nico. “Three Byzantine sales for future delivery.” Tyche 9 (1994): 67–88.Search in Google Scholar

Kugener, M. A., editor. Epiphanius of Tyr, Epistle in the Acts of the Council of Constantinople of 536. Patrologia Orientalis 2. Turnhout: Brepols, 1981[1904].Search in Google Scholar

Laes, Christian. “Child slaves at work in Roman antiquity.” Ancient Society 38 (2008): 235–283.10.2143/AS.38.0.2033278Search in Google Scholar

Laiou, Angeliki. “Economic thought and ideology.” In The Economic History of Byzantium. Vol. 1, edited by Angeliki Laiou, 1123–1144. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

Laniado, Avshalom. Recherches sur les notables municipaux dans l’empire protobyzantin. Monographies 13. Paris: Association des amis du Centre d’Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

Lapin, Hayim. Economy, Geography and Provincial History in later Roman Palestine. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011.10.1628/978-3-16-158724-5Search in Google Scholar

Latour, Bruno and Vincent A. Lépinay. L’économie science des intérêts passionnés. Introduction à l’anthropologie économique de Gabriel Tarde. Paris: Découverte, 2008.Search in Google Scholar

Lavan, Luke “The agorai of Antioch and Constantinople as seen by John Chrysostom.” In Wolf Liebeschuetz Reflected: essays presented by colleagues, friends and pupils. BICS Suppl. 91, edited by John Drinkwater, et al., 157–164. London: Institute for Classical Studies, 2007.10.1111/j.2041-5370.2007.tb02386.xSearch in Google Scholar

Lavan, Luke. “From Polis to emporion? Retail and regulation in the late antique city.” In Trade and Market in Byzantium, edited by Cécile Morrisson, 333–379. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

Leontius of Neapolis. Life of John the Almsgiver. In Léontios de Néapolis, Vie de Syméon le Fou et Vie de Jean de Chypre, edited by André Festugière. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1974.Search in Google Scholar

Leyerle, Blake. “John Chrysostom on almsgiving and the use of Money.” Harvard Theological Review 87 (1994): 29–47.10.1017/S001781600003162XSearch in Google Scholar

Libanius. Opera. Vol. 3, edited by Richardus Foerster. Leipzig: Teubner, 1906. Search in Google Scholar

Llewellyn Ihsen, Brenda. “‘That which has been wrung from tears’: usury, the Greek Fathers and Catholic teaching.” In Reading Patristic Texts on Social Ethics. Issues and challenges for twenty-first century Christian social thought, edited by J. Leemans, et al., 124–160. Washington: The Catholic University, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

Llewellyn Ihssen, Brenda. They Who Give from Evil. The response of the eastern Church to moneylending in the early Christian era. Oregon: Pickwick, 2012. 10.2307/j.ctt1cgf552Search in Google Scholar

Llewellyn Ihssen, Brenda. John Moschos’ Spiritual Meadow: authority and autonomy at the end of the antique world. London: Routledge, 2016.10.4324/9781315590592Search in Google Scholar

Lo Cascio, Elio. “The role of the state in the Roman economy-making use of the New Institutional Economics.” In Ancient economies, Modern methodologies. Archaeology, comparative history, models and institutions, edited by Peter F. Bang, et al., 215–234. Bari: Edipuglia, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

López, Ariel G. Shenoute of Atripe and the Uses of Poverty. Rural patronage, religious conflict, and monasticism in Late Antique Egypt. Berkeley: University of California, 2013.10.1525/california/9780520274839.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

MacMullen, Ramsay.Corruption and the Decline of Rome. New Haven: Yale U. P., 1988.Search in Google Scholar

Maguire, Henry. “Garments pleasing to God: the significance of domestic textile designs in the early Byzantine period.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 44 (1990): 215–224.10.2307/1291630Search in Google Scholar

Malingrey, Anne-Marie, editor. Jean Chrysostome, Sur la Vaine Gloire et l’Éducation des Enfants. SC 188. Paris: Cerf, 1972.Search in Google Scholar

Mango, Marlia. “The monetary value of silver revetments and objects belonging to churches, A.D. 300–700.” In Ecclesiastical Silver Plate in Sixth-Century Byzantium, edited by Marlia Mango and S. A. Boyd, 123–136. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks, 1993.Search in Google Scholar

Markiewicz, Thomas. “The church, clerics, monks and credit in the papyri.” In Monastic Estates in Late Antique and Early Islamic Egypt. Ostraca, papyri, and essays in memory of Sarah Clackson. American Society of Papyrologists 46, edited by Anne Boud’hors, et al., 178–204. Cincinnati: American Society of Papyrologists, 2009.Search in Google Scholar

Mayer, Wendy. “Poverty and society in the world of John Chrysostom.” Ιn Social and Political Life in Late Antiquity. Late Antique Archaeology 3.1, edited by William Bowden, et al., 273–296. Leiden: Brill, 2006.10.1163/22134522-90000052Search in Google Scholar

Merianos, Gerasimos. (Μεριάνος, Γεράσιμος). “Αντιλήψεις περί αποταμιεύσεως στο Βυζάντιο: Πατερικές διδαχές. Ψυχωφελείς διηγήσεις και κοσμικές θεωρήσεις.” In Αποταμίευση και Διαχείριση Χρήματος στην Ελληνική Ιστορία, edited by K. Μπουραζέλης and Κ. Μεϊδάνη, 177–219. Αθήνα: Ταχυδρομικό Ταμιευτήριο Ελλάδος, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

Milewski, Ireneusz. “Economic aspects of depositions and exiles of bishops in the late Roman Empire (on examples of the church dignitaries from the eastern provinces).” Laverna 17 (2006): 99–116.Search in Google Scholar

Mitchell, Margaret. “Silver chamber pots and other goods which are not good. John Chrysostom’s Discourse against Wealth and Possessions.” In Having. Property and possessions in religious and social life, edited by W. Schweiker and C. Mathewes, 88–121. Grand Rapids: Eeerdmans, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

Moreschini, Claudio, editor. Gregorio di Nazianzo. Tutte le Orazioni. Milan: Bompiani, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

Mossakowska-Gaubert, Maria “Tuniques à manches courtes et sans manches dans l’habitat monastique égyptien (Ive- début VIIe siècle).” AntTard 12 (2004): 153–167.10.1484/J.AT.2.300069Search in Google Scholar

Nachtergael, G. “La caricature d’un banquier à son comptoir. A propos d’une terre cuite d’Égypte de l’ancienne Collection Ernst von Siegelin.” In Opes Atticae. Miscellanea philological et historica Raymondo Bogaert et Hermanno van Looy oblate, edited by M. Geerard, 315–322. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff International, 1990.10.1484/J.SE.2.303740Search in Google Scholar

Naether, Franziska. Die Sortes Astrampychi. Problemlosungsstrategien durch Orakel im römischen Ägypten. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

Navarra, Maria Luisa. “Creditori e debitori nel IV sec. d.C.: un macabre caso di esecuzione personale.” In Convegno internazionale in onore di Giuliano Grifò. Atti dell’Academia Romanistica Constantiniana 17.2, 849–900. Rome: Ariacne, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

Neyt, F., and P. de Angelis-Noah, editors. Barsanuphe et Jean de Gaza, Correspondance. T. III. SC 468. Paris: Cerf, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

Norman, A. F. Antioch as a Centre of Hellenic culture as observed by Libanius. Liverpool: Liverpool U. P., 2000.10.3828/978-0-85323-595-8Search in Google Scholar

Norman, A. F., editor. “Libanius, Or. 33.” In Selected Works. Cambridge: Harvard U. P., 1977.Search in Google Scholar

Nowak, Maria. “Titius heres esto. The role of the legal practice in the law-creation in late antiquity.” JJP 40 (2010): 161–184.Search in Google Scholar

Oakman, Douglas. Jesus, Debt and the Lord’s Prayer. Oregon: Cascade, 2014.10.2307/j.ctt1cgf5jrSearch in Google Scholar

Ogerau, Julien M. Paul’s Koinonia with the Philippians. A socio-historical investigation of a Pauline economic partnership. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Ogilvie, Sheilagh, Markus Küpker and Janine Maegraith. “Household debt in early modern Germany: evidence from personal inventories.” Journal of Economic History 72 (2012): 134–167. 10.1017/S0022050711002464Search in Google Scholar

Palme, Bernhardt. Das Amt des ἀπαιτητής im Ägypten. Wien: Brüder Hollinek in Komm., 1989.Search in Google Scholar

Palme, Bernhardt, editor. Corpus Papyrorum Raineri XXIV. Militär aus dem spätantiken Ägypten. Wien: Brüder Hollinek, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

Papaconstantinou, Arietta. “A preliminary prosopography of moneylenders in early Islamic Egypt and South Palestine.” In Mélanges Cécile Morrisson. Travaux et Mémoires 16, 631–648. Paris: Association des Amis du Centre d’Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

Papaconstantinou, Arietta. “Credit, debt and dependence in early Islamic Egypt.” In Mélanges Jean Gascou. Textes et Études Papyrologiques (P. Gascou). Travaux et Mémoires 20/1, edited by J. L. Fournet and Arietta Papaconstantinou, 613–642. Paris: Association des Amis du Centre d’Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

Papagianni, Elefteria. “Un témoin de la réalité juridique byzantine: la jurisprudence patriarcale au XIV e siècle.” In Fontes Minores XI, edited by L. Burgmann, 213–227. Frankfurt am Main: Löwenklau, 2005.Search in Google Scholar

Parker, Grant. “Ex oriente luxuria: Indian commodities and Roman experience.” JESHO 45.1 (2002): 40–95.10.1163/156852002320123055Search in Google Scholar

Parsons, Peter. City of the Sharp-Nosed Fish. Greek papyri beneath the Egyptian sand reveal a long-lost world. London: Phoenix, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

Prokopios. The Secret History with related texts, edited and translated by Anthony Kaldellis. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

Rathbone, Dominic. “Villages and patronage in fourth-century Egypt. The case of P. Ross. Georg. 3.8.” BASP 47 (2008): 189–208.Search in Google Scholar

Rea, John, editor. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri LXIII. London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1996.Search in Google Scholar

Rife, Joseph. Review of “Kenchreai Eastern port of Corinth. V. 6. Ivory, bone and related finds by Wilma Olch Stern and Danae Hadjilazaro Thimme. (Leiden: Brill 2007).” JRA 23 (2010): 736–740.10.1017/S1047759400003044Search in Google Scholar

Rosenfeld, Ben-Zion and Joseph Menirav. “Methods of pricing and price regulation in Roman Palestine in the third and fourth centuries.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 (2001): 351–369.10.2307/606667Search in Google Scholar

Rotman, Yuval. “Slaves and slavery in the Byzantine period.” In Law and Legal Practice in Egypt from Alexander to the Arab Conquest. A selection of papyrological sources in translation with introduction and commentary, edited by James G. Keenan, et al., 461–467. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Ruffini, Giovanni. Social Networks in Byzantine Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 2008.10.1017/CBO9780511552014Search in Google Scholar

Salamito, Jean-Marie. “Christianisme antique et économie: raison et modalities d’une rencontre historique.” AntTard 14 (2006): 27–37.10.1484/J.AT.2.302418Search in Google Scholar

Samellas, Antigone. Alienation: the Experience of the Eastern Mediterranean (50–600 A.D.). Bern: Peter Lang, 2010.10.3726/978-3-0351-0026-6Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, Peter. “Rehabilitating the great Estate: aristocratic property and economic growth in Late Antiquity.” In Recent Research on the Late antique Countryside. Late Antique Archaeology 2, edited by W. Bowden, et al., 53–71. Brill: Leiden, 2004.10.1163/22134522-90000021Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, Peter. Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 2006.10.1017/CBO9780511496387Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, Peter. “Integration and disintegration in the late Roman economy: the role of markets, emperors and aristocrats.” In Local Economies? Production and exchange in inland regions in late antiquity. Late Antique Archaeology 10, edited by Luke Lavan, 167–188. Leiden: Brill, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

Sartre, Maurice, editor.Inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie. Bostra. T.13.1. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1982.Search in Google Scholar

Scheidel, Walter. “The shape of the Roman world: modelling imperial connectivity.” JRA 27 (2014): 7–32.10.1017/S1047759414001147Search in Google Scholar

Schwartz, Eduardus, editor. Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum II.1. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1967.Search in Google Scholar

Shaw, Brent. Bringing in the Sheaves: economy and metaphor in the Roman world. Buffalo: University of Toronto, 2013.10.3138/9781442661592Search in Google Scholar

Silvas, Anna, M. The Asketikon of St. Basil the Great. Oxford: Oxford U. P., 2005.Search in Google Scholar

Silvas, Anna, M. Gregory of Nyssa: The Letters. Introduction, translation and commentary. Leiden: Brill, 2007.10.1163/ej.9789004152908.i-283Search in Google Scholar

Sinkewicz, Robert, translator. Evagrius of Pontus: the Greek ascetic corpus. Oxford: Oxford U. P., 2003.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199259939.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Sotinel, Claire. “Le don chrétien et ses retombées économiques dans l’Antiquité tardive.” AntTard 14 (2006): 105–116.10.1484/J.AT.2.302425Search in Google Scholar

Stephenson, John. “Dining as spectacle in late Roman houses.” BICS 59 (2016): 54–71.10.1111/j.2041-5370.2016.12019.xSearch in Google Scholar

Stern, Wilma O. and Danae Hadjilazaro-Thimme. Kenchreai. Eastern Port of Corinth. V. 6. Ivory, bone and related finds. Leiden: Brill, 2007.10.1163/ej.9789004158184.i-420Search in Google Scholar

Stewart, Randall, editor. Sortes Astrampsychi. Vol. 2. Leipzig: Teubner, 2001. Search in Google Scholar

Theodore, bishop of Paphos. Life of S. Spyridon, bishop of Trimithonte. In La Légende de S. Spyridon, Évêque de Trimithonte, edited by Paul van den Ven. Louvain: Publications Universitaires, 1953.Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, John P. Private Religious Foundations in the Byzantine Empire. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks, 1987.Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, Thelma K. “Introduction: the material world of late antiquity”. In Designing Identity: the power of textiles in Late Antiquity, edited by Thelma K. Thomas, 21–53. New York: Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

Treadgold, Warren. “Paying the army in the Theodosian period.” In Production and Prosperity in the Theodosian period, edited by Ine Jacobs, 303–319. Leuven: Peeters, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Urbanik, Jakub. “P. Oxy. LXIII 4397: the monastery comes first or pious reasons before earthly securities.” In Monastic Estates in Late Antique and Early Islamic Egypt. Ostraca, papyri, and essays in memory of Sarah Clackson. American Society of Papyrologists 46, edited by Anne Boud’hors, et al., 225–235. Cincinnati: American Society of Papyrologists, 2009.Search in Google Scholar

Urbanik, Jakub. “Diligent carpenters in Dioscoros’ papyri and the Justinianic standard of diligence. On P. Cairo Masp. II 67158 and 67159.” In Culpa. Facets of liability in ancient legal theory and practice: proceedings of the seminar held in Warsaw 17–19 February 2011. Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplements, edited by Jakub Urbanik, 273–296. Warsaw: University of Warsaw, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

Urbanik, Jakub. “Tapia’s banquet hall and Eulogius’ cell: transfer of ownership as a security in some late Byzantine Papyri.” In New Frontiers: law and society in the Roman world, edited by P. du Plessis, 151–174. Edinburgh: Edinburgh U. P., 2013.Search in Google Scholar

Van Driel-Murray, Carol. “Fashionable footwear: craftsmen and consumers in the north-west provinces of the Roman Empire.” In Urban Craftsmen and Traders in the Roman World, edited by Andrew Wilson and Miko Flohr, 132–153. Oxford: Oxford U. P., 2016.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748489.003.0007Search in Google Scholar

Van Minnen, Peter. “Urban craftsmen in Roman Egypt.” MBAH 6 (1987): 31–88.Search in Google Scholar

Van Minnen, Peter. “Money and credit in Roman Egypt.” In The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans, edited by W. V. Harris, 226–241. Oxford: Oxford U. P. 2008. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233359.003.0012Search in Google Scholar

Veyne, Paul and Jacques Ramin. “Droit romain et société: les hommes libres qui passent pour esclaves et l’esclavage volontaire.” Historia 30 (1981): 472–497.Search in Google Scholar

Veyne, Paul. “La ‘plèbe moyenne’ sous le Haut-Empire romain.” Annales 55 (2000): 1169–1199.10.3406/ahess.2000.279911Search in Google Scholar

Vivian, Tim, translator. “Life of Abba Aaron.” In Seven Early Monastic Lives. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996.Search in Google Scholar

Von Reden, Sitta. “Money and finance.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Economy, edited by W. Scheidel, 266–286. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 2012.10.1017/CCO9781139030199.017Search in Google Scholar

Vroom, Joanna. “The archaeology of late antique dining habits in the eastern Mediterranean: a preliminary study of the evidence.” In Objects in Context, Objects in Use. Material Spatiality in Late Antiquity. Late Antique Archaeology 5, edited by Luke Lavan, et al., 313–361. Leiden: Brill, 2007.10.1163/22134522-90000113Search in Google Scholar

Vuolanto, Ville. “Selling a freeborn child. Rhetoric and social realities in the late Roman world.” Ancient Society 33 (2003): 169–207.10.2143/AS.33.0.503599Search in Google Scholar

Wilfong, Terry. Women of Jeme: lives in a Coptic town in late antique Egypt. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2002. 10.3998/mpub.10358Search in Google Scholar

Wilson, Andrew. “Large-scale manufacturing, standardization and trade.” In Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World, edited by John P. Oleson, 393–417. Oxford: Oxford U. P., 2008.10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199734856.013.0016Search in Google Scholar

Wipszycka, Ewa.L’industrie textile dans l’Egypte Romaine. Warsaw: Zaklad Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1965.Search in Google Scholar

Wipszycka, Ewa “L’économie du patriarcat alexandrin à travers les vies de saint Jean l’Aumônier.” In Alexandrie medievale 2, edited by Ch. Décobert, 61–81. Le Caire: Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

Wipszycka, Ewa. “Resources and economic activities of the Egyptian monastic communities (4th-8th centuries).” JJP 41 (2011): 159–263.Search in Google Scholar

Worp, K. A. Greek Papyri from Kellis (P.Kell.G.). Vol. I. Oxford: Oxbow, 1995.Search in Google Scholar

Wortley, John, translator. The Spiritual Meadow by John Moschos. Kalamazoo: Cistercian, 1992. Search in Google Scholar

Yiftach-Firanko, Uri. “P. Col. Inv. 131 Recto: a loan contract with Paramone provision from mid-first century CE Theadelphia 131 Recto.” JJP 40 (2010): 267–282.Search in Google Scholar

Ziche, Hartmut. “Making late Roman taxpayers pay: Imperial government strategies and practice.” In Violence in Late Antiquity. Perceptions and practices, edited by H. Drake, 127–136. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

Zuckerman, Constantin. “Le cirque, l’argent et le peuple. À propos d’une inscription du Bas-Empire.” Revue des Études Byzantines 58 (2000): 69–96.10.3406/rebyz.2000.1986Search in Google Scholar

Zuckerman, Constantin. Du village à l’empire. Autour du registre fiscal d’Aphroditô (525/526). Paris: Association des Amis du Centre d’Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2017-6-14
Published in Print: 2017-6-7

© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 2.4.2023 from
Scroll to top button