Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 15, 2014

Evaluation of potential antiamnesic activities of aqueous extract of Vitex trifolia leaves against scopolamine induced amnesia and in normal rats

  • Amberkar Vittal Rao Mohanbabu , Meena Kumari Kamal Kishore EMAIL logo , Bangalore Revanna Chandrashekar , Hoskeri Dakappa Pradeepa , Rockson Christopher and Purnanand Banawalikar Nandit


Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate the cerebroprotective and cognition-enhancing activities of the aqueous Vitex trifolia (Vt) L. (Verbenaceae) leaf extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia and in normal rats.

Methods: Reference or working memory and long-term memory in rodents were tested by experimental paradigms like passive avoidance (PA) and T-maze (TM), respectively. TM and Morris water maze (MWM) were used to screen putative spatial or localization task and the navigation memory-enhancing activities of Vt extract, respectively. In both the PA and TM models, scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, 30 min prior to the trial) was used to induce amnesia, and donepezil (3 mg/kg/day for 15 days) was used as a standard antiamnesic drug. In MWM, two doses of Vt extract were tested against normal control rats. The aqueous Vt extract was prepared as a suspension in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose and administered orally at two doses (10 and 20 mg/kg/day) for 15 days to the respective group of rats.

Results: The higher dose (20 mg/kg) of plant extract exhibited significant (p<0.01) antiamnesic activity in the PA and TM models vs. the control. In the MWM test, at probe trial, Vt extract 20 mg/kg showed the least escape latency time, which was statistically significant (p<0.01) and exhibited maximum percentage of time spent in the probe quadrant by 60.75%.

Conclusions: These results partly substantiate the traditional use of Vt leaves for improvement of cognition, indicating that daily administration of Vt leaves differentially could modulate short- and long-term learning and memory in rats probably through its battery of anticholinesterase, procholinergic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities.

Corresponding author: Dr. Meena Kumari Kamal Kishore, Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India, E-mail:


This work was supported by the Department of Pharmacology, KMC, Manipal, Manipal University, India.

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


1. Johnson CB, Harper GM, Landefeld CS. Geriatric disorders. In: Papadakis MA, Mc Phee SJ, Rabow MW, editors. Current medical diagnosis and treatment, 52nd ed. USA: Cenveo Publisher Services, McGraw Hill, 2013:59.Search in Google Scholar

2. Achliya G, Barabde U, Wadodkar S, Dorle A. Effect of Bramhi Ghrita, a polyherbal formulation on learning and memory paradigms in experimental animals. Indian J Pharmacol 2004;36:159–62.Search in Google Scholar

3. Kirti S, Kulkarni SB, Mengi SA. Efficacy study of Prunus amygdalus (almond) nuts in scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2010;42:168–73.10.4103/0253-7613.66841Search in Google Scholar

4. Blokland A. Acetyl choline: a neurotransmitter for learning and memory? Brain Res Rev 1996;21:285–300.10.1016/0165-0173(95)00016-XSearch in Google Scholar

5. Vaisman N, Pelled D. N-phosphatidylserine attenuated scopolamine induced amnesia in middle-aged rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2009;33:952–9.10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.04.021Search in Google Scholar

6. Aranjo JA, Chan AD, Winka LL, Seymour PA, Milgram NW. Dose-specific effects of scopolamine on canine cognition: impairment of visuospatial memory, but not visuospatial discrimination. Psychopharmacology 2004;175:92–8.Search in Google Scholar

7. Lenegre A, Chermat R, Avril I, Porsolt RD. Specificity of piracetam’s anti-amnesic activity in three models amnesia in the mouse. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1988;29:625–9.10.1016/0091-3057(88)90030-5Search in Google Scholar

8. Lee CR, Benfield P. Aniracetam. An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders. Drugs Aging 1994;4:257–73.Search in Google Scholar

9. Padmalatha K, Jayaram K, Raju NL, Prasad MN, Arora R. Ethnopharmacological and biotechnological significance of Vitex. Biorem Biodiv Bioavail 2009;3:6–14.Search in Google Scholar

10. Alam G, Wahyuono S, Ganjar IG, Hakim L, Timmerman H, Verpoorte R. Tracheospasmolytic activity of viteosin-A and vitexicarpin isolated from Vitex trifolia. Planta Med 2002;68:1047–9.10.1055/s-2002-35650Search in Google Scholar

11. Kiuchi F, Matsuo K, Ito M, Qui TK, Honda G. New norditerpenoids with trypanocidal activity from Vitex trifolia. Chem Pharm Bull 2004;52:1492–4.10.1248/cpb.52.1492Search in Google Scholar

12. Ono M, Yanaka T, Yamamoto M, Ito Y, Nohara YT. Diterpenes and norditerpenes from the fruits of Vitex rotundifolia. J Nat Prod 2002;65:537–41.10.1021/np0105331Search in Google Scholar

13. Ono M, Yamamoto M, Yanaka T, Ito Y, Nohara T. Ten new labdane-type diterpenes from the fruit of Vitex rotundifolia. Chem Pharm Bull 2001;49:82–6.10.1248/cpb.49.82Search in Google Scholar

14. Ono M, Ito Y, Nohara T. Four new halimane type diterpenoids, vitetrifolins D–G from the fruits of Vitex trifolia. Chem Pharm Bull 2001;49:1220–2.10.1248/cpb.49.1220Search in Google Scholar

15. Ono M, Sawamura H, Ito Y, Mizuki K, Nohara T. Diterpenoids from the fruits of Vitex trifolia. Phytochemistry 2000;55:873–7.10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00214-4Search in Google Scholar

16. Ono M, Yamamoto M, Masuoka C, Ito Y, Yamashita M, Nohara T. Diterpenes from the fruits of Vitex rotundifolia. J Nat Prod 1999;62:1532–7.10.1021/np990204xSearch in Google Scholar

17. Ono M, Ito Y, Kubo S, Nohara T. Two new iridoids from Viticis trifoliate fructus (fruit of Vitex rotundifolia L). Chem Pharm Bull 1997;45:1094–6.10.1248/cpb.45.1094Search in Google Scholar

18. Ono M, Ito Y, Nohara T. A labdane diterpene glycoside from fruit of Vitex rotundifolia. Phytochemistry 1998;48:207–9.10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00863-7Search in Google Scholar

19. Ono M, Masuoka C, Ito Y, Nohara T. Antioxidative constituents from Viticis trifoliae fructus (fruit of Vitex rotundifolia L). Food Sci Technol Int 1998;4:9–13.10.3136/fsti9596t9798.4.9Search in Google Scholar

20. Rajendran SM, Agarwal SC, Sundaresan V. Lesser known ethnomedicinal plants of the Ayyakarkoil Forest Province of South Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India – Part I. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 2003;10:103–12.10.1300/J044v10n04_10Search in Google Scholar

21. Li LW, Cui C, Cai B, Yao XJ. Labdane-type diterpenes as new cell cycle inhibitors and apoptosis inducers from Vitex trifolia L. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2005;7:95–105.10.1080/10286020310001617165Search in Google Scholar

22. Tiwari N, Thakur J, Saikia D, Gupta MM. Antitubercular diterpenoids from Vitex trifolia. Phytomedicine 2013;20:605–10.10.1016/j.phymed.2013.01.003Search in Google Scholar

23. Hernández MM, Heraso C, Villarreal ML, Vargas-Arispuro I, Aranda E. Biological activities of crude plant extracts from Vitex trifolia L. (Ver-benaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:37–44.10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00041-0Search in Google Scholar

24. Zeng X, Fang Z, Wu Y, Zhang H. Chemical constituents of the fruits of Vitex trifolia L. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1996;21:167–8.Search in Google Scholar

25. Ramesh P, Nair AG, Subramanian SS. Flavone glycosides of Vitex trifolia. Fitoterapia 1986;4:282–3.Search in Google Scholar

26. Nebie RH, Yameogo RT, Belanger A, Sib FS. Chemical composition of essential oils of Vitex diversifolia Bak. from Burkina Faso. J Essent Oil Res 2005;17:276–77.Search in Google Scholar

27. Lindsay HB, Cambie RC. The extractives of Vitex lucens. Tetrahedron 1958;3:269–70.10.1016/0040-4020(58)80022-8Search in Google Scholar

28. Sumanth M, Sowmya H, Nagaraj SV, Narasimharaju K. Efficacy of donepezil and galantamine in retrograde amnesia. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2010;3:23–5.Search in Google Scholar

29. Manjunatha BK, Vidya SM. Hepatoprotective activity of Vitex trifolia against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. Indian J Pharm Sci 2008;70:241–5.10.4103/0250-474X.41466Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

30. Trneckova L, Hynie S, Sida P, Hlinak Z, Krejci I, Klenerova V. Effects of stress and of amphetamine on passive avoidance conditioning in rats. Gen Physiol Biophys 2005;24:129–42.Search in Google Scholar

31. Rai KS, Murthy KD, Karanth KS, Rao MS. Clitoria ternatea (linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2001;45:305–13.Search in Google Scholar

32. Morris RG. Development of water maze procedure for studying spatial learning in rats. J Neurosci Method 1984;11: 47–60.10.1016/0165-0270(84)90007-4Search in Google Scholar

33. Narwal S, Sainia DR, Kumaria K, Narwal BS, Singh G, Negi SR, et al. Behavior & pharmacological animal models for the evaluation of learning & memory condition. Indo Global J Pharm Sci 2012;2:121–9.10.35652/IGJPS.2012.15Search in Google Scholar

34. Ravichandra V, Devi A, Adiga S, Rai KS. Evaluation of the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra linn extract on spatial learning and passive avoidance response in rats. Indian Drugs 2007;44:214–9.Search in Google Scholar

35. Terry AV Jr. Spatial navigation (water maze) tasks. In: Buccafusco JJ, editor. Methods of behavior analysis in neuroscience, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009:267–8.Search in Google Scholar

36. John DM, Mark B, Lawrence P, Charles W, Matthew B, Jessica M. The impact of galantamine on cognition and mood during electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study. J Psychiatr Res 2008;48:526–31.Search in Google Scholar

37. Prendergast MA, Terry AV Jr, Buccafusco JJ. Chronic low-level exposure to diisopropylfluorophosphate causes protracted impairment of spatial navigation learning. Psychopharmacology 1997;129:183–91.10.1007/s002130050179Search in Google Scholar PubMed

38. Brandeis R, Brandys Y, Yehuda SL. The use of the Morris water maze in the study of memory and learning. Int J Neurosci 1989;48:29–69.10.3109/00207458909002151Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Received: 2014-1-4
Accepted: 2014-6-19
Published Online: 2014-8-15
Published in Print: 2015-3-1

©2014 by De Gruyter

Downloaded on 23.3.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow