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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 16, 2014

Morphological changes in the pancreas and glucose reduction of the aqueous extract of Costus afer leaf on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

  • Anthoneth Ndidi Ezejiofor , Chinna Nneka Orish and Orish Ebere Orisakwe EMAIL logo


Background: Considering the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of herbs, this study has evaluated the morphological changes, hypoglycemic effect, and comparative ameliorating effects of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaf and glibenclamide on pancreatic injury induced by alloxan.

Methods: Thirty adult male albino rats that were divided into six groups of five weight-matched animals each were used in the study. Groups 1 and 2 served as controls, whereas groups 3–6 were alloxan-induced diabetic groups treated with different doses of the extract (375, 750, and 1125 mg/kg C. afer) and glibenclamide, respectively. The glucose level was measured daily, whereas the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test was measured on overnight fasted rats after glucose load at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. The histopathology of the pancreas was also investigated.

Results: The phytoconstituents of C. afer Ker Gawl leaves include glycosides, tannins, saponins, terpenoid, phenolic compound, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Costus afer possessed significant hypoglycemic (p<0.05) effect and reversed the histopathologic damage of pancreases in alloxan-induced diabetic rats comparable to those of glibenclamide.

Conclusions: Costus afer leaves possess both antidiabetic and tissue protective properties on pancreases of investigated rats.

Corresponding author: Orish Ebere Orisakwe, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, Phone: +2348068533281, E-mail:


We acknowledge Mr. A.O. Ozioko (INTERCEDD, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria) and Professor M.E. Bassey (Botany Department, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria) for the identification and authentication of the plant.

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2014-3-24
Accepted: 2014-9-24
Published Online: 2014-12-16
Published in Print: 2015-11-1

©2015 by De Gruyter

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