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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 22, 2014

Antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Andrographis paniculata in some laboratory animals

Adeolu Alex Adedapo EMAIL logo , Bisi Olajumoke Adeoye , Margaret Oluwatoyin Sofidiya and Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi


Background: The study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant properties of Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts in laboratory animals.

Methods: The dried and powdered leaves of the plant were subjected to phytochemical and proximate analyses. Its mineral content was also determined. Acute toxicity experiments were first performed to determine a safe dose level. The plant material was extracted using water and ethanol as solvents. These extracts were then used to test for the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant properties of the plant. The anti-inflammatory tests included carrageenan-induced and histamine-induced paw oedema. The analgesic tests conducted were formalin paw lick test and acetic acid writhing test. The antioxidant activities of the extracts of A. paniculata were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total polyphenol (TP) and 2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) using ascorbic acid as standard for both DPPH and FRAP, and gallic acid as a standard for both TP and ABTS.

Results: The acute toxicity experiment demonstrated that the plant is safe at high doses even at 1600 mg/kg. It was observed that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata had higher antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract. The experiments using both extracts may suggest that the extracts of A. paniculata leaves possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant properties, although the ethanolic extract seemed to have higher biological properties than the aqueous extract.

Conclusions: The results from this study may have justified the plant’s folkloric use for medicinal purpose.

Corresponding author: Adeolu Alex Adedapo, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Ibadan, University of Ibadan – Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Oyo State 20005, Nigeria, Phone: +2348162746222, E-mail:


This study was conducted with a research grant (SRG/FVM/2010A) from the University of Ibadan given to Dr. Adeolu Adedapo.

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2014-4-17
Accepted: 2014-7-17
Published Online: 2014-8-22
Published in Print: 2015-7-1

©2015 by De Gruyter

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