Surgical injury leads to postoperative pain hypersensitivity preceded by central nervous sensitization, due to lowered pain threshold in peripheral nociceptors and increased excitability of the spinal neurons. Pre-emptive analgesia is intended to decrease pain perception and overall analgesic need by use of drug regimen seizing central nervous system sensitization before exposure to painful stimuli. Earlier, few studies support pre-emptive analgesic efficacy of novel antiepileptic agent gabapentin. But topiramate and lamotrigine though proven analgesic in animal models of chronic pain and clinical studies of gabapentin resistant neuropathic pain; literature search revealed scarce data on its pre-emptive analgesic efficacy. The present study is designed to study and compare the pre-emptive analgesic efficacy of lamotrigine, topiramate and gabapentin (as control) in postoperative pain control.
This randomized clinical trial included 90 patients of either sex, between 18 and 70 years undergoing major surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated into control and test groups and received respective treatment 30 min before induction of anesthesia. Aldrete’s score and pain score were recorded using visual analogue scale and facial and behavioral rating scales at awakening and at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h. Postoperative rescue analgesic consumption for 24 h was recorded. Data were analyzed using OpenEpi and SciStatCalc statistical softwares.
Significantly higher pain scores were observed in the topiramate group postoperatively for 2 h on all pain scales (p<0.05). Lamotrigine-treated patients were more comfortable throughout the study with significantly less (p<0.05) postoperative analgesic requirement comparable to gabapentin.
Study results are strongly suggestive of pre-emptive analgesic efficacy of single oral dose lamotrigine comparable to gabapentin and superior to topiramate in postoperative pain control.
The authors are thankful to Dr. A.V. Bhore, Dean SKNMC and Dr. R. W. Naphade, HOD Anesthesia, for providing facilities to carry out of the experiments of this work.
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
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