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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 22, 2016

Comparative studies on the effects of clinically used anticonvulsants on the oxidative stress biomarkers in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling model of epileptogenesis in mice

  • Faizan Mazhar EMAIL logo , Saima M. Malhi and Shabana U. Simjee



Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and contributes in underlying epileptogenesis process. Anticonvulsant drugs targeting the oxidative stress domain of epileptogenesis may provide better control of seizure. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of clinically used anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on the course of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling and oxidative stress markers in mice.


Six mechanistically heterogeneous anticonvulsants: phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, pregabalin, topiramate, and felbamate were selected and their redox profiles were determined. Diazepam was used as a drug control for comparison. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (50 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate days until seizure score 5 was evoked in the control kindled group. Anticonvulsants were administered daily. Following PTZ kindling, oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed in homogenized whole brain samples and estimated for the levels of nitric oxide, peroxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione, and activities of nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase.


Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species with a parallel decrease in endogenous anti-oxidants in PTZ-kindled control animals. Daily treatment with levetiracetam and felbamate significantly decreased the PTZ-induced seizure score as well as the levels of nitric oxide (p<0.001), nitric oxide synthase activity (p<0.05), peroxide levels (p<0.05), and malondialdehyde (p<0.05). Levetiracetam and felbamate significantly decreased lipid and protein peroxidation whereas topiramate was found to reduce lipid peroxidation only.


An AED that produces anticonvulsant effect by the diversified mechanism of action such as levetiracetam, felbamate, and topiramate exhibited superior anti-oxidative stress activity in addition to their anticonvulsant activity.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2016-3-11
Accepted: 2016-7-19
Published Online: 2016-9-22
Published in Print: 2017-1-1

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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