The present study was planned to investigate the phytochemical, antioxidant, antinociceptive, anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities of the Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb leaf methanol extract (MExJT) in the laboratory using both in vitro and in vivo methods.
Phytochemical values, namely, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and FeCl3 reducing power effects, were studied by established methods. In vivo antinociceptive activity was performed by acidic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced pain test on Swiss albino mice at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The clot lysis and brine shrimp lethality bioassay in vitro were used to evaluate the thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of the plant extract, respectively.
Phytochemical screening illustrates the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, gums and carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids and reducing sugars in the extract. The results showed the total phenolic content (146.33 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total flavonoid content (133.33 g quercetin/100 g). Significant (p<0.05) IC50 values compared to respective standards were recorded in DPPH radical scavenging (289.5 μg/mL) and FeCl3 reduction (245.2 μg/mL). The antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced pain models in Swiss albino mice with doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.05) inhibition (72.87±2.73%) of writhing response compared to diclofenac sodium was achieved by 500 mg/kg body weight. The extract also significantly inhibited the licking response in both the early phase (51.59±1.57%, p<0.05) and the late phase (64.82±1.87%, p<0.05) in the formalin-induced writhing test. MExJT also showed (38.10±1.79%) clot lytic activity in the thrombolytic test and cytotoxicity with an LC50 value of 31.70 μg/mL in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
The plant is a potential source of antioxidants and might have one or more secondary metabolite(s) with central and peripheral analgesic activity. The results also demonstrate that MExJT has moderate thrombolytic and lower cytotoxic properties that may warrant further exploration.
The authors are grateful to the Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, for providing facilities for this research work.
Author contributions: MSH, MJU and MRUR carried out the experiments and wrote the manuscript. MMR and ASMAR supervised the work and prepared the manuscript. MAR, MSN and MRI contributed to the manuscript corrections. All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
1. Maqsood S, Singh P, Samoon MH, Balange AK. Effect of dietary chitosan on non-specific immune response and growth of Cyprinus carpio challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Inter Aqua Res 2010;2:77–85.Search in Google Scholar
2. Uniyal SK, Singh KN, Jamwal P, Lal B. Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalayan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2006;2:1–4.10.1186/1746-4269-2-1Search in Google Scholar
4. Vongtau HO, Abbah J, Chindo BA, Mosugu O, Salawu AO, Kwanashie HO, et al. Central inhibitory effects of the methanol extract of Neorautanenia mitis root in rats and mice. J Pharm Biol 2005;43:113–20.10.1080/13880200590919401Search in Google Scholar
5. Oluyemi KA, Okwuonu UC, Baxter DG, Oyesola TO. Toxic effects of methanolic extract of Aspilia africana leaf on the estrous cycle and uterine tissues of Wistar rats. Int J Morphol 2007;25:609–14.10.4067/S0717-95022007000300023Search in Google Scholar
7. Yang J, Paulino R, Janke-Stedronsky S, Abawi F. Free radical scavenging activity and total phenols of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice and powder in processing and storage. Food Chem 2007;102:302–8.10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.05.020Search in Google Scholar
8. Hedimbi M, Chinsembu KC. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS-related disease conditions in the Ohangwena region, Namibia. Int J Med Plants Res 2012;1:4–11.Search in Google Scholar
9. Capper KR. Lysergic acid derivatives in morning glory seeds. In The pharmacological and epidemiological aspects of adolescent drug dependence. London: Proceedings of the Society for the Study of Addiction, 1966:75–81.Search in Google Scholar
11. Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical screening and extraction: a review. Int Pharm Sci 2011;1:98–106.Search in Google Scholar
15. Hendershot LC, Forsaith J. Antagonism of the frequency of phenylquinone-induced writhing in the mouse by weak analgesics and nonanalgesics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1959;125:237–40.Search in Google Scholar PubMed
16. Korster R, Anderson M, de Veer EJ. Acetic acid for analgesic screening. Fed Pro 1959;18:412.Search in Google Scholar
18. Prasad S, Kashyap RS, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Maginawala HF. Development of an in vitro model to study clot lysis activity of thrombolytic drugs. Thromb J 2006;4:1–4.10.1186/1477-9560-4-1Search in Google Scholar
19. Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL. Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Planta Med 1982;45:31–4.10.1055/s-2007-971236Search in Google Scholar
21. Tseng TH, Kao ES, Chu CY, Chou FP, Lin Wu HW, Wang CJ. Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes. Food Chem Toxicol 1997;35:1159–64.10.1016/S0278-6915(97)85468-3Search in Google Scholar PubMed
22. Shimizu K, Kondo R, Sakai K, Takeda N, Nagahata T, Oniki T. Novel vitamin E derivative with 4-substituted resorcinol moiety has both antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Lipids 2001;36:1321–26.10.1007/s11745-001-0847-9Search in Google Scholar PubMed
23. Grice HC. Safety evaluation of butylated hydroxyanisol from the prospective of effect on forest-omach and oesophageal squamous epithelium. Food Chem Toxicol 1988;26:717–23.10.1016/0278-6915(88)90072-5Search in Google Scholar
25. Umamaheswari M, Chatterjee TK. In vitro antioxidant activities of the fractions of Coccinnia grandis L. leaf extract. Afr J Trad Compl Altern Med 2008;5:61–73.Search in Google Scholar
26. Packer L, Ong AS. Biological oxidants and antioxidants: molecular mechanisms and health effects. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press, 1997.Search in Google Scholar
28. Shahwar D, Raza MA, Toqir A, Viqar UA. Microbial transformation of vanillin isolated from Melia azedarach to vanillyl alcohol followed by protease inhibition and antioxidant activity. J Chem Soc Pak 2011;33:715–19.Search in Google Scholar
29. Muhammad ZQ, Faraz AR, Rukhsana K, Durre S, Raza MA. In vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous and organic extracts of Clematis connata. Asian J Chem 2011;23:4017–20.Search in Google Scholar
30. Shahwar D, Raza MA, Saeed A, Riasat M, Chatta FI, Javaid M, et al. Antioxidant potential of the extracts of Putranjiva roxburghii, Conyza bonariensis, Woodfordia fruiticosa and Senecio chrysanthemoids. Afr J Biotechnol 2012;11:4288–95.Search in Google Scholar
34. Bellah SM, Islam M, Karim M, Rahaman M, Nasrin M, Rahman M, et al. Evaluation of cytotoxic, analgesic, antidiarrheal, and phytochemical properties of Hygrophila spinosa (T. Anders) whole plant. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2017;2:185–90.10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0103Search in Google Scholar
38. Asongalem EA, Foyet HS, Ekobo S, Dimo T, Kamtchouing P. Anti-inflammatory, lack of central analgesia and antipyretic properties of Acanthus montanus (Ness) T. Anderson. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95:63–8.10.1016/j.jep.2004.06.014Search in Google Scholar
40. Silva GN, Martins FR, Matheus ME. Investigation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Lantana trifolia. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;100:254–59.10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.040Search in Google Scholar PubMed
41. Ansari P, Uddin M, Rahman M, Abdullah-Al-Mamun M, Islam M, Ali M, et al. Anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of an ornamental medicinal plant: Persicaria orientalis. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2017;28:51–8.10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0023Search in Google Scholar PubMed
42. Chowdhury NS, Alam MB, Haque AS, Zahan R, Mazumder ME, Haque ME. In vitro free radical scavenging and thrombolytic activities of Bangladeshi aquatic plant Aponogeton undulatus Roxb. Global J Pharmacol 2011;5:27–32.Search in Google Scholar
43. Rahman MA, Sultana R, Emran TB, Islam MS, Rahman MA, Chakma JS, et al. Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013;13:25.10.1186/1472-6882-13-25Search in Google Scholar PubMed
45. Logarto PA, Silva YR, Guerra SI, Iglesias BL. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 2001;8:395–400.10.1078/0944-7113-00044Search in Google Scholar PubMed
©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston