Garcinia kola (GK) stem bark, Uvaria chamae (UC) root, and Olax subscorpioidea (OS) root are components of various indigenous/traditional anticancer regimens. It is, therefore, possible that they might combat oxidative stress and impair cellular proliferation linked to carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative, mito-depressive, and DNA-damaging activities of the three plant extracts in order to provide further mechanistic insights into their potential anticancer roles in documented cancer remedies that include them. Antioxidative properties were investigated in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging assays and an animal model of drug (cisplatin)-induced oxidative stress. The Allium cepa assay and the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay were used to assess mito-depressive and DNA-damaging activities. GK and OS showed significantly higher antioxidant activities in the DPPH assay than ascorbic acid; OS had the lowest IC50 of the three plants in the NO assay, comparable to that of ascorbic acid. Pretreatment with the extracts produced an ameliorative and protective effect against the cisplatin-induced oxidative stress as shown by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and improved or restored reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels. In the Allium test, the three extracts produced significant decreases in root growth and also significant cytotoxicity as evidenced by decreased mitotic index. Each of the extracts also showed significantly increased tail DNA (%) in the SCGE assay, indicating the significant DNA-damaging effect. Taken together, this study demonstrates the possible chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potentials of the three study extracts, which may explain the roles of their source plants in traditional remedies in the therapy of cancers.
Research funding: None declared.
Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission. Popoola Temidayo was involved in the design of the study, conducted experiments, and wrote the manuscript. Olufunsho Awodele was involved in the design of the study and review of the manuscript. Babawale Folashayo, Oguns Oluwatoyin, Onabanjo Olawale, Ibamga Imaobong, Henry Godwin, and Oyeniyi Tosin conducted experiments. Amos Fatokun contributed to the review of data sets and analysis and the preparation of the manuscript. Oluyemi Akinloye contributed to the review and the preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.
Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.
Ethical approval: Research involving animals complied with international ethical standards and approved by the Health and Research Ethics Committee of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria (CMUL/HREC/10/18/441), in accordance with the US National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical Research.
 Abubakar MS, Musa AM, Ahmed A, Hussaini IM. The perception and practice of traditional medicine in the treatment of cancers and inflammations by the Hausa and Fulani tribes of Northern Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;111:625–9.10.1016/j.jep.2007.01.011Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Soladoye MO, Amusa N, Raji-Esan S, Chukwuma E, Taiwo A. Ethnobotanical survey of anti-cancer plants in Ogun State, Nigeria. Ann Biol Res 2010;1:261–73.Search in Google Scholar
 Ngulde SI, Sandabe UK, Hussaini IM. Ethnobotanical survey of anticancer plants in Askira/Uba local government area of Borno State, Nigeria. African J Pharmacy Pharmacol 2015;9:123–30.10.1055/s-0034-1382703Search in Google Scholar
 Cragg GM, Boyd MR, Cardellina JH, Newman DJ, Snader KM, McCloud TG. Ethnobotany and Drug Discovery: the experience of the US National Cancer Institute. Ciba Foundation Symposium 185-Ethnobotany and the Search for New Drugs: Ethnobotany and the Search for New Drugs: Ciba Foundation Symposium 185. 2007;178–196.10.1002/9780470514634.ch13Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Sharma P, Parmar J, Verma P, Goyal P. Anti-tumor activity of Phyllanthus niruri (a medicinal plant) on chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevent 2008;10:1089–94.Search in Google Scholar
 Cragg GM, Schepartz SA, Suffness M, Grever MR. The taxol supply crisis. New NCI policies for handling the large-production of novel natural product anticancer and anti-HIV agents. Nat Prod 1993;56:1657–68.10.1021/np50100a001Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the period 1981–2002. J Nat Prod 2003;66:1022–37. PubMed PMID: 12880330. Epub 2003/07/26. eng.10.1021/np030096lSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
 Wang HK. Plant-derived anticancer agents currently in clinical use or in clinical trials. IDrugs 1998;1:92–102. PubMed PMID: 18465513. Epub 2008/05/10. eng.Search in Google Scholar
 Baena Ruiz R, Salinas Hernández P. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals: epidemiological evidence. Maturitas 2016;94:13–9.10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.08.004Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Catalano E. Role of phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of tumors. arXiv preprint arXiv:160504519. 2016.Search in Google Scholar
 Chikara S, Nagaprashantha LD, Singhal J, Horne D, Awasthi S, Singhal SS. Oxidative stress and dietary phytochemicals: role in cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Cancer Lett 2018;413:122–34.10.1016/j.canlet.2017.11.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Turrini E, Calcabrini C, Tacchini M, Efferth T, Sacchetti G, Guerrini A, et al.. In vitro study of the cytotoxic, cytostatic, and antigenotoxic profile of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (Apocynaceae) crude drug extract on T lymphoblastic cells. Toxins (Basel) 2018;6:10. PubMed PMID: 29415441. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC5848171. Epub 2018/02/09.10.3390/toxins10020070Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
 Turrini E, Calcabrini C, Sestili P, Catanzaro E, de Gianni E, Diaz AR, et al. Withania somnifera induces cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on human T leukemia cells. Toxins 2016;8:147. PubMed PMID: PMC4885062.10.3390/toxins8050147Search in Google Scholar
 Popoola TD, Awodele O, Omisanya A, Obi N, Umezinwa C, Fatokun AA. Three indigenous plants used in anti-cancer remedies, Garcinia kola Heckel (stem bark), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (root) and Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. (root) show analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. J Ethnopharmacol 2016;194:440–9. PubMed PMID: 27686270. Epub 2016/10/01.10.1016/j.jep.2016.09.046Search in Google Scholar
 Cuendet M, Hostettmann K, Potterat O, Dyatmiko W. Iridoid glucosides with free radical scavenging properties from Fagraea blumei. Helvetica Chimica Acta 1997;80:1144–52.10.1002/hlca.19970800411Search in Google Scholar
 Burits M, Bucar F. Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytotherapy 2000;14:323–8.10.1002/1099-1573(200008)14:5<323::AID-PTR621>3.0.CO;2-QSearch in Google Scholar
 Alisi C, Onyeze G. Nitric oxide scavenging ability of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata (Linn.). Afr J Biochem Res 2008;2:145–50.Search in Google Scholar
 Singh NP, McCoy MT, Tice RR, Schneider EL. A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell 1988;175:184–91.10.1016/0014-4827(88)90265-0Search in Google Scholar
 Lee JH, Khor TO, Shu L, Su Z-Y, Fuentes F, Kong A-NT. Dietary phytochemicals and cancer prevention: Nrf2 signaling, epigenetics, and cell death mechanisms in blocking cancer initiation and progression. Pharmacol Therapeut 2013;137:153–71.10.1016/j.pharmthera.2012.09.008Search in Google Scholar
 Peng C, Chen S, Lin Z, Lin G. Detection of antioxidative capacity in plants by scavenging organic free radical DPPH. Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 2000;27:658–61.Search in Google Scholar
 Ivanova D, Gerova D, Chervenkov T, Yankova T. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;96:145–50.10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.033Search in Google Scholar
 Laskin JD, Heck DE, Laskin DL. Multifunctional role of nitric oxide in inflammation. Trends Endocrinol Metab 1994;5:377–82. PubMed PMID: 18407233. Epub 1994/11/01. eng.10.1016/1043-2760(94)90105-8Search in Google Scholar
 Attanayake A, Jayatilaka K. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of 20 medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine in Sri Lanka. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 2016;15:50–6.Search in Google Scholar
 Zicca A, Cafaggi S, Mariggiò MA, Vannozzi MO, Ottone M, Bocchini V, et al. Reduction of cisplatin hepatotoxicity by procainamide hydrochloride in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2002;442:265–72.10.1016/S0014-2999(02)01537-6Search in Google Scholar
 Mansour HH, Hafez HF, Fahmy NM. Silymarin modulates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. BMB Rep 2006;39:656–61.10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.656Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Abdurrauf Y, Ahmet A, Osman ÇA, Mesut A. Ellagic acid prevents cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in liver and heart ttissue of rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;101:345–9.10.1111/j.1742-7843.2007.00129.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
 Pratibha R, Sameer R, Rataboli PV, Bhiwgade DA, Dhume CY. Enzymatic studies of cisplatin induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue of rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;532:290–3.10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.01.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Yousef MI, Saad AA, El-Shennawy LK. Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47:1176–83.10.1016/j.fct.2009.02.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Latha P, Suja S, Abraham A, Rajasekharan S, Panikkar K. Hepatoprotective effects of Ixora coccinea flower extract on rats. J Trop Med Plants 2003;4:33–8.Search in Google Scholar
 Nobili S, Lippi D, Witort E, Donnini M, Bausi L, Mini E, et al. Natural compounds for cancer treatment and prevention. Pharmacology 2009;59:365–78.10.1016/j.phrs.2009.01.017Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Timothy O, Idu M, Olorunfemi D, Ovuakporie-Uvo O. Cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of leaf extract of Icacina trichantha Oliv. S Afr J Botany 2014;91:71–4.10.1016/j.sajb.2013.11.008Search in Google Scholar
 Babatunde B, Bakare A. Genotoxicity screening of wastewaters from Agbara industrial estate, Nigeria evaluated with the Allium test. Pollut Res 2006;25:227.Search in Google Scholar
 Olorunfemi D, Ogieseri U, Akinboro A. Genotoxicity screening of industrial effluents using onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.). J Appl Sci Environ Manage 2011;15:211–6.10.4314/jasem.v15i1.65700Search in Google Scholar
 Ayandele A, Adebiyi A. The phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of extracts of Olax subscorpioidea. Afr J Biotechnol 2007;6:868–70.Search in Google Scholar
 Akerele J, Obasuyi O, Ebomoyi M, Oboh I. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and fractions of the seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae). Afr J Biotechnol 2008;7:169–72.Search in Google Scholar
 Oluremi B, Osungunna M, Omafuma O. Comparative assessment of antibacterial activity of Uvaria chamae parts. Afr Microbiol 2010;4:1391–4.Search in Google Scholar
 Smaka-Kincl V, Stegnar P, Lovka M, Toman MJ. The evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the allium test procedure. Mutation Res/Genetic Toxicol 1996;368:171–9.10.1016/S0165-1218(96)90059-2Search in Google Scholar
 Panda B, Sahu U. Induction of abnormal spindle function and cytokinesis inhibition in mitotic cells of Allium cepa by the organophosphorus insecticide Fensulfothion. Cytobios 1985;42:147–55.Search in Google Scholar
 Sharma C. Plant meristems as monitors of genetic toxicity of environmental chemicals. Curr Sci 1983;52:1000–2.Search in Google Scholar
 Ostling O, Johanson KJ. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1984;123:291–8.10.1016/0006-291X(84)90411-XSearch in Google Scholar
 Banerjee S, Chattopadhyay P, Ghosh A, Pathak MP, Singh S, Veer V. Acute dermal irritation, sensitization, and acute toxicity studies of a transdermal patch for prophylaxis against (+/−)anatoxin-A poisoning. Int J Toxicol 2013;32:308–13.10.1177/1091581813489996Search in Google Scholar PubMed
© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston