Insulin therapy is a major part of diabetes treatment. The insulin injection technique must be done accurately and needs a professional process for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The aim of this research is to evaluate the relationship of education level pertaining to the accuracy of insulin injection techniques through HbA1c values.
We used a cross-sectional study with sampling using a purposive technique according to the inclusion criteria: diagnosed with DM and using insulin therapy with/without a combination of oral antidiabetic drugs, having HbA1c levels of data ± 3 months from the time of study, willing to become research respondents by signing informed consent. The study was conducted by filling out the questionnaire Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy Expert Recommendation (FITTER) and interviews.
Fifty subjects with primary education were able to perform insulin injection techniques with 20% accuracy while subjects with secondary education level showed 14% accuracy, and higher education 2%. All of these results had HbA1c values > 6.5%. 100 % of the subjects were provided with educational resources and 78% had a care-giver at home. Statistical analysis of correlation between levels of education with the accuracy of the insulin injection technique was carried out through the Somers’ correlation test (p = 0.81, r = −0.03). This study shows there is no relationship between the level of education and the accuracy of insulin injection techniques through HbA1c values. This might occur due to several factors such as information sources and caregiver’s practice.
Authors would like to thank the staff of Endocrine Poly Outpatient Installation at RSSA Malang who assisted in managing data. This paper has been presented at the 8th APPEN Conference and 2nd HPC Conference on 8 – 9 October 2019, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Research funding: None declared.
Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.
Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.
Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.
Ethical approval: Research involving human subjects complied with all relevant national regulations, institutional policies and is in accordance with the tenets of the Helsinki Declaration (as revised in 2013), and was stated as ethical conduct with the issuance of Ethical Clearance Number 400/042/K.3/302/2019.
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