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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 7, 2020

Evaluating current practices and policies in the use of injectable medicines for treating myalgia in a primary care center in Pamekasan, Indonesia

  • Eko Prasetio ORCID logo , Wahyu Utami , Zulhabri Othman , Ari Wardani , Abdul Rahem and Andi Hermansyah ORCID logo EMAIL logo



Myalgia in patients can be associated with a large array of conditions, including injuries, infections and inflammations. Treatment for myalgia may include the use of oral, topical and injectable medicines (IM). However, the use of IM has been restricted by the World Health Organization due to the common hazards associated with inappropriate medicine use, risks of disease transmission and more expensive spending for using IM. Accordingly, the Ministry of Health of Indonesia (MoH) has limited the use at the level of ≤1% in every primary care center (Puskesmas) across the nation. The aim of this study was to report and evaluate rational drug use injection in myalgia in a Puskesmas in Pamekasan, Indonesia.


This study reviewed official documents, such as rational drug use report, medicine use databases and drug request report. The documents were obtained from the district health office or public domain from 2014 to 2018. Data were then collated, extracted and presented as frequencies.


The average rate of use of IM for myalgia in Pamekasan was 36.15%. All 20 Puskesmas in Pamekasan conducted injection practice above the recommended level, thus reflecting a major gap between practice and policy implementation. This study implies that a substantial effort is needed to enforce the policy.


The use of IM for myalgia treatment in Pamekasan from 2014 to 2018 was significantly higher than the recommended level, thus reflecting a major problem in the practice. This is an alarming call for the local healthcare stakeholders to improve such a situation.


The authors would like to thank the Pamekasan District Health Office and East Java Province Health Office for providing the data related to the use of injection drugs for myalgia.

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: The authors state no conflict of interest.

  4. Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.

  5. Ethical approval: Research involving human subjects complied with all relevant national regulations, institutional policies and is in accordance with the tenets of the Helsinki Declaration (as revised in 2013), and has been approved by the authors’ institutional review board or equivalent committee. (070/8324/209.4/2019). This study has obtained permission from the Government of East Java Province and District Health Office Pamekasan, Indonesia.


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Received: 2019-11-01
Accepted: 2019-11-06
Published Online: 2020-02-07

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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