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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 14, 2019

The change of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α level in the use of meloxicam in rat model of osteoarthritis

  • Junaidi Khotib EMAIL logo , Naning Windi Utami , Maria Apriliani Gani and Chrismawan Ardianto



Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease in the joints. One of the proinflammatory cytokines that is thought to have a major role in the inflammatory process, the emergence of pain, and cartilage damage in OA is tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug class of drugs that is relatively selective in inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) formation. This study is conducted to prove the change in TNF-α level in the use of meloxicam with model in animals suffering from OA.


The OA rat model was induced with sodium monoiodoacetate intra-articularly. Rats were divided into 5 groups: negative control group, positive control group, and treatment groups with various doses of meloxicam. Hyperalgesia effect was evaluated using a warm plate test, and TNF-α level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


The treatment groups that received meloxicam at a dose of 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg body weight (BW) did not show significant differences in rat knee joint diameter (p = 0.99), but showed a significant difference in sensitivity to heat stimulation (p = 0.02) compared to the control group. Osteoarthritis rats experienced a significant reduction in TNF-α level after being given meloxicam at a dose of 10 mg/kg BW compared with the control group. This shows that the 10 mg/kg BW of meloxicam is a potential dose in reducing the TNF-α level in OA rat models.


Based on these data, it can be concluded that the inhibition of pain and the development of OA by meloxicam in animal models may be assigned to a decreased level of TNF-α.


The author thanks the Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga for all support during research.

  1. Research funding: This research was funded by the Ministri of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia through a scheme of Mandate Research Grant.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  4. Ethical approval: All experiments were performed at the Animal Research Laboratory of Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia in accordance with the guide for care and use of laboratory animal issued by National Institute of Health revised in 1985. The protocol of this reseach was approved by the Ethical Committee of Faculty of Veterinary, Universitas Airlangga with No: 2.KE.50.04.2019.


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Received: 2019-11-05
Accepted: 2019-11-15
Published Online: 2019-12-14

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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