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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 10, 2020

Food-added azodicarbonamide alters haematogical parameters, antioxidant status and biochemical/histomorphological indices of liver and kidney injury in rats

Anthony T. Olofinnade, Adejoke Y. Onaolapo, Olakunle J. Onaolapo, Olugbenga A. Olowe and Oluwaseyi A. Adeyeba



Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is a dough enhancer currently used as a replacement for potassium bromate in the process of bread-making in countries such as Nigeria. However, comprehensive information on the toxicological profile of ADA is not readily available. The present study investigated the toxicological effects of ADA in rats.


Twenty-four adult rats were randomly assigned into four groups of six rats each. Animals in group A served as the control (administered standard diet), whereas animals in groups B, C and D were fed ADA in food at 1, 2 and 4%, respectively. Standard or ADA diet was fed to the animals daily for a period of 28 days. Body weight was measured weekly, whereas food and water consumption was measured daily. On day 28, animals were fasted overnight after which they were euthanised. Blood samples taken were used for assessment of fasting blood glucose, haematological parameters, serum lipids, antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation status, electrolytes and urea, plasma proteins and biochemical parameters of liver and kidney injury. The liver and kidneys were then excised and processed for general histological study.


The results showed that repeated administration of ADA was associated with dose-related decrease in weight gain, decrease in overall food consumption, decreased superoxide dismutase activity/glutathione level and increased lipid peroxidation. There was also biochemical and morphological evidence of liver and kidney injury.


These findings suggest that food-added ADA could be injurious to the body cells and organs in rats.

Corresponding author: Olakunle J. Onaolapo, Behavioural Neuroscience/Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria, Phone: +234 07031986101, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  4. Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.

  5. Ethical approval: Research involving animals complied with all relevant national regulations and institutional policies (European Council Directive [EU2010/63]) and the Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals (Vol. 1, 2nd ed., 1993, available from the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), 190 O’Connor St, Suite 800, Ottawa, ON K2P 2R3, Canada, or on their website at


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Received: 2019-11-13
Accepted: 2020-03-25
Published Online: 2020-08-10

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