Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 25, 2021

The characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented food as potential probiotics

  • Victoria Yulita Fitriani , Budi Suprapti EMAIL logo and Muhammad Amin



This study aims to determine the characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri from fermented soursop fruit juice and cow’s milk, respectively as probiotic candidate based on exposure to pH, bile salts, pathogenic bacteria, and antibiotics.


In vitro studies were conducted to examine the resistance of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri in pH 2, 2.5, 3.2, and 7.2, resistance to bile salts, resistance to pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) and antituberculosis antibiotics.


Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri isolates remained unchanged (6.3 × 107 CFU/mL and 5.03 × 107 CFU/mL) at various acidic pH, and had a low survival rate in Ox gall 0.3% (bile salts). These isolates also showed antibacterial properties against pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. Both of these bacteria are quite safe to be used together with ofloxacin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin, antibiotic for tuberculosis therapy.


The results showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri from fermented soursop fruit juice and cow’s milk respectively fulfilled the characteristics of probiotic and could potentially be used as adjunct therapy in tuberculosis drug-resistance.

Corresponding author: Budi Suprapti, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia, Phone: +628155086694, E-mail:


We would like to thank the Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Airlangga University for providing Lactobacillus acidophilus (BioLA246) and Lactobacillus reuteri (BioLR321) isolates for this research. Gratitude are due to The Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education (KEMRISTEKDIKTI), Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP), and BUDI-DN Scholarship.

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  4. Informed consent: Not applicable.

  5. Ethical approval: Not applicable.


1. Piqué, N, Berlanga, M, Miñana-Galbis, D. Health benefits of heat-killed (Tyndallized) probiotics: an overview. IJMS 2019;20:2534. in Google Scholar

2. Ramos, CL, Thorsen, L, Schwan, RF, Jespersen, L. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products. Food Microbiol 2013;36:22–9. in Google Scholar

3. Shi, LH, Balakrishnan, K, Thiagarajah, K, Mohd Ismail, NI, Yin, OS. Beneficial properties of probiotics. Trop Life Sci Res 2016;27:73–90. in Google Scholar

4. Somashekaraiah, R, Shruthi, B, Deepthi, BV, Sreenivasa, MY. Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Neera: a naturally fermenting coconut palm Nectar. Front Microbiol 2019;10:1382. in Google Scholar

5. Cheng, D, Song, J, Xie, M, Song, D. The bidirectional relationship between host physiology and microbiota and health benefits of probiotics: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 2019;91:426–35. in Google Scholar

6. Kim, J-A, Bayo, J, Cha, J, Choi, YJ, Jung, MY, Kim, D-H, et al.. Investigating the probiotic characteristics of four microbial strains with potential application in feed industry. PloS One 2019;14:e0218922. in Google Scholar

7. Raras, TYM, Rusmini, H, Wisudanti, DD, Chozin, IN. Kefir stimulates anti-inflammatory response in TB-AFB (+) patients. Pak J Nutr 2015;14:330–4. in Google Scholar

8. Ratnikova, IA, Sadanov, AK, Gavrilova, NN, Emilkyzy, OS, Belikova, OA. The effect of the lactic acid bacteria culturing conditions on their antagonistic activity to pathogens of tuberculosis. Prensa Med Argent 2019;105:192–6.Search in Google Scholar

9. Setiyaningrum, Z, Darmono, SS, Sofro, MAU, Dharmana, E, Widyastiti, NS. Effect of combined probiotics and zinc supplementation on immune status of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Pak J Nutr 2016;15:680–5. in Google Scholar

10. Suprapti, B, Suharjono, S, Raising, R, Yulistiani, Y, Izzah, Z, Nilamsari, WP, et al.. Effects of probiotics and vitamin B supplementation on IFN-γ and IL-12 levels during intensive phase treatment of tuberculosis. Indonesia J Pharm 2018;29:80. in Google Scholar

11. Aarti, C, Martina, C, Khusro, A. Antimycobacterium, anticancer, and antiviral properties of probiotics: an overview. Microbes Infect Dis 2020. in Google Scholar

12. Rezac, S, Kok, CR, Heermann, M, Hutkins, R. Fermented foods as a dietary source of live organisms. Front Microbiol 2018;9:1785. in Google Scholar

13. Campana, R, van Hemert, S, Baffone, W. Strain-specific probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria and their interference with human intestinal pathogens invasion. Gut Pathog 2017;9:12. in Google Scholar

14. Fijan, S. Microorganisms with claimed probiotic properties: an overview of recent literature. Int J Environ Res Publ Health 2014;11:4745–67. in Google Scholar

15. Cruz, N. Making bacterial glycerol stocks [Internet]. Cambridge: MIT; 2015. Available from: in Google Scholar

16. Warner, LR, Mass, O, Lenn, ND, Grantham, BR, Oxford, JT. Growing and handling of bacterial cultures within a shared core facility for integrated structural Biology program. Grow Handl Bact Cult. Available from: in Google Scholar

17. Yeo, S, Shin, HS, Lee, HW, Hong, D, Park, H, Holzapfel, W, et al.. Determination of optimized growth medium and cryoprotective additives to enhance the growth and survival of Lactobacillus salivarius. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018;28:718–31. in Google Scholar

18. Son, S-H, Jeon, H-L, Yang, S-J, Sim, M-H, Kim, Y-J, Lee, N-K, et al.. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Korean fermented foods based on β-glucosidase activity. Food Sci Biotechnol 2017;27:123–9. in Google Scholar

19. Al-Malkey, MK, I MCh, Al-Hur, FJA, Mohammed, SW, Nayyef, HJ. Antimicrobial effect of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Contemp Med Sci 2017;3.10.22317/jcms.v3i10.169Search in Google Scholar

20. Balouiri, M, Sadiki, M, Ibnsouda, SK. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: a review. J Pharm Anal 2016;6:71–9. in Google Scholar

21. Feliatra, F, Mardalisa, M, Setiadi, J, Lukistyowaty, I, Hutasoit, AY. Potential of secondary metabolite from marine heterotrophic bacteria against pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture. J Phys: Conf Ser 2020;1655:012044. in Google Scholar

22. Sunaryo, D. Karakteristik Ketahanan Bakteri Asam Laktat Indigenous Dadiah Sebagai Kandidat Probiotik Pada Kondisi Saluran Pencernaan in Vitro [Internet] [Skripsi]. [Bogor]. Institut Pertanian Bogor 2011. Available from: in Google Scholar

23. Sharma, C, Gulati, S, Thakur, N, Singh, BP, Gupta, S, Kaur, S, et al.. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of indigenous lactobacilli isolated from curd and human milk samples. 3 Biotech 2017;7:53. in Google Scholar

24. Fuochi, V, Petronio, GP, Lissandrello, E, Furneri, PM. Evaluation of resistance to low pH and bile salts of human Lactobacillus spp. isolates. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2015;28:426–33. in Google Scholar

25. Bai, JPF, Burckart, GJ, Mulberg, AE. Literature review of gastrointestinal physiology in the Elderly, in pediatric patients, and in patients with gastrointestinal diseases. J Pharmaceut Sci 2016;105:476–83. in Google Scholar

26. Washington, N, Washington, C, Wilson, C. Physiological pharmaceutics. Barriers to drug absorption, 2nd ed. Great Britain: Taylor & Francis Group; 2001:75–137 pp.Search in Google Scholar

27. Soliman, AHS, Sharoba, AM, Bahlol, HEM, Soliman, AS, Radi, OMM. Evaluation of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum for probiotic characteristics. Middle East J Appl Sci 2015;5:10–8.Search in Google Scholar

28. Dixit, G, Samarth, D, Tale, V, Bhadekar, R. Comparative studies on potential probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains. Eurasia J Biosci 2013;7:1–9. in Google Scholar

29. Corcoran, BM, Stanton, C, Fitzgerald, GF, Ross, RP. Survival of probiotic lactobacilli in acidic environments is enhanced in the presence of metabolizable sugars. AEM 2005;71:3060–7. in Google Scholar

30. Cotter, PD, Hill, C. Surviving the acid test: responses of gram-positive bacteria to low pH. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2003;67:429–53. in Google Scholar

31. Hong, S-I, Kim, Y-J, Pyun, Y-R. Acid tolerance of Lactobacillus plantarum from Kimchi. LWT-Food Science Technol 1999;32:142–8. in Google Scholar

32. Soghomonyan, D, Trchounian, A. The survival of irradiated lactobacilli in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions with antibiotic ceftazidime. Lett Appl Microbiol 2019;68:31–7. in Google Scholar

33. Sun, Y. F1F0-ATPase functions under markedly acidic conditions in bacteria. In: Chakraborti, S, Dhalla, NS, editors. Regulation of Ca2+-ATPases,V-ATPases and F-ATPases. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:459–68 pp.10.1007/978-3-319-24780-9_22Search in Google Scholar

34. Sahadeva, RPK, Leong, SF, Chua, KH, Tan, CH, Chan, HY, Tong, EV, et al.. Survival of commercial probiotic strains to pH and bile. Int Food Res J 2011;18:1515–22.Search in Google Scholar

35. Badrie, N, Schauss, AG. Soursop (Annona muricata L.). In: Bioactive foods in promoting health. New York: Elsevier; 2010:621–43 pp.10.1016/B978-0-12-374628-3.00039-6Search in Google Scholar

36. Ladokun, O, Oni, S. Fermented milk products from different milk types. Food Nutr Sci 2014;5:1228–33. in Google Scholar

37. Hu, P-L, Yuan, Y-H, Yue, T-L, Guo, C-F. Bile acid patterns in commercially available ox gall powders used for the evaluation of the bile tolerance ability of potential probiotics. PLoS One 2018;13:e0192964. in Google Scholar

38. Moini, J. Epidemiology of diet and diabetes mellitus. In: Epidemiology of diabetes. New York: Elsevier; 2019:57–73 pp.10.1016/B978-0-12-816864-6.00005-5Search in Google Scholar

39. Khalil, E, Abd Manap, M, Mustafa, S, Alhelli, A, Shokryazdan, P. Probiotic properties of Exopolysaccharide-producing lactobacillus strains isolated from Tempoyak. Molecules 2018;23:398. in Google Scholar

40. Ruiz, L, Margolles, A, Sánchez, B. Bile resistance mechanisms in lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Front Microbiol 2013;4.10.3389/fmicb.2013.00396Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

41. Sánchez, B, Ruiz, L, Gueimonde, M, Ruas-Madiedo, P, Margolles, A. Adaptation of bifidobacteria to the gastrointestinal tract and functional consequences. Pharmacol Res 2013;69:127–36. in Google Scholar

42. Nagyzbekky, E, Abitayeva, G, Anuarbekov, S, Shaikhina, D, Li, K, Shaikhin, S, et al.. Investigation of acid and bile tolerance, antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance of lactobacillus strains isolated from Kazakh dairy foods. Asian J Appl Sci 2016;9:143–58. in Google Scholar

43. Minelli, EB, Benini, A. Relationship between number of bacteria and their probiotic effects. Microb Ecol Health Dis 2008;20:180–3. in Google Scholar

44. Chen, C-C, Lai, C-C, Huang, H-L, Huang, W-Y, Toh, H-S, Weng, T-C, et al.. Antimicrobial activity of lactobacillus species against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Front Microbiol 2019;10:789. in Google Scholar

45. Servin, AL. Antagonistic activities of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria against microbial pathogens. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2004;28:405–40. in Google Scholar

46. Georgieva, R, Yocheva, L, Tserovska, L, Zhelezova, G, Stefanova, N, Atanasova, A, et al.. Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility of lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. intended for use as starter and probiotic cultures. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 2015;29:84–91. in Google Scholar

47. Dec, M, Urban-Chmiel, R, Stępień-Pyśniak, D, Wernicki, A. Assessment of antibiotic susceptibility in Lactobacillus isolates from chickens. Gut Pathog 2017;9.10.1186/s13099-017-0203-zSearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Received: 2020-11-29
Accepted: 2021-02-25
Published Online: 2021-06-25

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 1.3.2024 from
Scroll to top button