Batik dyes contain irritant chemicals that increase the risk of skin barrier disruption. This study aims to determine the effect of Centella asiatica and ceramide in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration of the stratum corneum and skin acidity (pH).
This was a double blind clinical trial of 30 Indonesian batik workers who suffered from skin dryness, but had no clinical manifestation of contact dermatitis. Subjects were given cream containing C. asiatica or ceramide that formulated and randomly labeled by manufacturer (PT Paragon Technology and Innovation). Both subjects and researchers were blinded to the type of the cream. Cream was applied to the hands and arms twice a day. Biological function of the skin (TEWL, stratum corneum hydration level, and skin acidity) was examined by Cutometer dual MP-580. Baseline was recorded in the first examination, followed by second and third examinations at two and four weeks after treatment.
After four weeks treatment, there were significant improvement of C. asiatica application in evaluation of corneometer palmar (p=0.007; CI 95%), corneometer dorsum (p=0.001; CI 95%), and skin acidity dorsum (p=0.017; CI 95%). Ceramide application also gave significant improvement of corneometer palmar (0.038; CI 95%), skin acidity palmar (p=0.001; CI 95%), TEWL dorsum (p=0.023; CI 95%), corneometer dorsum (p=0.002; CI 95%) and skin acidity dorsum (p=0.011; CI 95%). There were no significant differences of C. asiatica effectiveness compared to ceramide in skin barrier improvement.
C. asiatica and ceramide can improve skin barrier hydration in order to prevent the risk of contact dermatitis in batik workers.
Funding source: PT. Paragon
We gratefully thank PT Paragon Technology and Innovation, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Batik Zulpah Tanjungbumi, and other parties that supported this research.
Research funding: PT Paragon Technology and Innovation
Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.
Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.
Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.
Ethical approval: This study was approved by ethical committee of Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. (1678/KEPK/XI/2019).
1. Tresnadi, C, Sachari, A. Identification of values of ornaments in Indonesian batik in visual content of Nitiki Game. J Adolesc Health 2015;4:25–39.Search in Google Scholar
2. Ishwara, H, Yahya, L, Moeis, X. Batik Pesisir Pusaka Indonesia Koleksi Hartono Sumarsono. Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia, Jakarta; 2011.Search in Google Scholar
3. Soebaryo, RW. Batik manufacturing workers. In: Rustemeyer, T, Elsner, P, John, S, Maibach, HI, eds. Kanerva’s occupational dermatology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2012:1289–95 pp.10.1007/978-3-642-02035-3_124Search in Google Scholar
4. Pramitasari, R, Hartini, E. The 6th asian Academic Society International Conference (AASIC). Asian Acad Soc Int Conf 2018:367–73.Search in Google Scholar
5. Johansen, JD, Aalto-Korte, K, Agner, T, Andersen, KE, Bircher, A, Bruze, M, et al.. European Society of Contact Dermatitis guideline for diagnostic patch testing – recommendations on best practice. Contact Dermatitis 2015;73:195–221. https://doi.org/10.1111/cod.12432.Search in Google Scholar
6. Ramos Pinheiro, R, Borges, AS, Brasileiro, A. Textile allergic contact dermatitis caused by occupational exposure: an overlooked condition. Contact Dermatitis 2018;79:323–4. https://doi.org/10.1111/cod.13080.Search in Google Scholar
7. Zhong, W, Xing, MMQ, Pan, N, Maibach, HI. Textiles and human skin, microclimate, cutaneous reactions: an overview. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2006;25:23–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/15569520500536600.Search in Google Scholar
8. Ratz-Lyko, A, Arct, J, Pytkowska, K. Moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties of cosmetic formulations containing Centella asiatica extract. Indian J Pharm Sci 2016;78:27–33. https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.180247.Search in Google Scholar
9. Du Plessis, J, Stefaniak, A, Eloff, F, John, S, Agner, T, Chou, TC, et al.. International guidelines for the in vivo assessment of skin properties in non-clinical settings: Part 2. transepidermal water loss and skin hydration. Skin Res Technol 2013;19:265–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/srt.12037.Search in Google Scholar
10. James, JT, Dubery, IA. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the medicinal herb, Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. Molecules 2009;14:3922–41. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14103922.Search in Google Scholar
11. Bylka, W, Znajdek-Awizeń, P, Studzińska-Sroka, E, Brzezińska, M. Centella asiatica in cosmetology. Postep Dermatol Alergol 2013;30:46–9. https://doi.org/10.5114/pdia.2013.33378.Search in Google Scholar
12. Gioia, F, Celleno, L. The dynamics of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from hydrated skin. Skin Res Technol 2002;8:178–86. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0846.2002.10342.x.Search in Google Scholar
13. George, M, Joseph, L, Ramaswamy. Anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Centella asiatica extracts. Afr J Trad Complement Altern Med 2009;6:554–9. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v6i4.57206.Search in Google Scholar
© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston