Background: The goal of this study was to examine the effect of Virgin Argan Oil (VAO) obtained from the fruit of Argania spinosa in a model of type 2 diabetes and hypertensive rats. Neonatal diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (90 mg/kg) 2 days after birth. To induce NO-deficient hypertension, the adult diabetic animals were treated with l-nitroarginine methylester (l-NAME) (30 mg/kg/day) given orally for 21 days.
Methods: Following treatment with VAO (21 days), the hyperglycemia decreased to 1.3 ± 0.07 g/l compared with 1.92 ± 0.09 g/l (p < 0.01) in the untreated diabetic-hypertensive rats. The simultaneous administration of VAO with l-NAME prevented the increase in blood pressure during the 3 weeks of treatment. Blood pressure remained constant at 131 ± 1 mm Hg after 21 days – vs 157 ± 0.64 mm Hg in untreated animals (p < 0.001).
Results: The treatment with VAO to diabetic-hypertensive rats caused a significant increase of hepatic glycogen levels (13.3 ± 1.8 vs 6.34 ± 0.75 mg/g tissue in untreated diabetic-hypertensive control group; p < 0.01).
Conclusions: In conclusion, the overall findings indicate that VAO possesses antidiabetic and antihypertensive activity in n-stz/l-NAME rats. This effect may be related to its high content of tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and unsaturated fatty acids.
The authors are thankful to Badraoui Mustapha and Ramdaoui Karim for technical help and animal breeding. This work was supported by grants from CNRST, Morocco [Project URAC-40] and from Belgium [Program 3, CUD Project].
2. Grundy SM, Benjamin IJ, Burke GL, Chait A, Eckel RH, Howard BV, et al. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation 1999;100:1134–46.10.1161/01.CIR.100.10.1134Search in Google Scholar
4. Drissi A, Girona J, Cherki M, Godàs G, Derouiche A, El Messal M, et al. Evidence of hypolipemiant and antioxidant properties of argan oil derived from the argan tree (Argania spinosa). Clin Nutr 2004;23:1159–66.10.1016/j.clnu.2004.03.003Search in Google Scholar
5. Berrougui H, Alvarez de Sotomayor M, Pérez-Guerrero C, Ettaib A, Hmamouchi M, Marhuenda E, et al. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Br J Nutr 2004;92:921–9.10.1079/BJN20041293Search in Google Scholar
6. Cherki M, Derouiche A, Drissi A, El Messal M, Bamou Y, Idrissi-Ouadghiri A, et al. Consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving paraoxonase activities and antioxidant status: Intervention study in healthy men. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2005;15:352–60.10.1016/j.numecd.2004.08.005Search in Google Scholar
7. Mekhfi H, Gadi D, Bnouham M, Ziyyat A, Legssyer A, Aziz M. Effect of Argan Oil on platelet aggregation and bleeding time: a beneficial nutritional property. J Compl Integr Med 2008;5:Article 18.10.2202/1553-3840.1164Search in Google Scholar
8. Samane S, Noel J, Charrouf Z, Amarouch A, Haddad PS. Insulin-sensitizing and anti-proliferative effects of Argania spinosa seed extracts. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2006;3:317–27.10.1093/ecam/nel015Search in Google Scholar
9. Bonnier-Weir S, Trent DE, Honey RN, Weir GC. Response to neonatal islets to streptozotocin: limited? Cell regeneration and hyperglycemia. Diabetes 1981;30:64–9.10.2337/diab.30.1.64Search in Google Scholar
11. Boukhobza M, Pichon-Prum N. L’arganier, ressource économique et médicinale pour le Maroc. Phytotherapy 1988;27:21–6.Search in Google Scholar
13. Frantus IG, Chayoth R, O’dea L, Marliss E, Yale JE, Grose M. Insulin binding and glucose transport in adipocytes in neonatal streptozotocin injected rat models of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 1987;36:654–60.10.2337/diab.36.5.654Search in Google Scholar PubMed
14. Moncada S, Palmer RM, Higgs EA. Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev 1991;43:109–42.Search in Google Scholar
15. Bartunek J, Weinberg EO, Tajima M, Rohrbach S, Katz SE, Douglas PS, et al. Chronic NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension novel molecular adaptation to systolic load in absence of hypertrophy. Circulation 2000;101:423–9.10.1161/01.CIR.101.4.423Search in Google Scholar
16. Ribeiro MO, Antunes E, de Nucci G, Lovisolo SM, Zatz R. Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis a new model of arterial hypertension. Hypertension 1992;20:298–303.10.1161/01.HYP.20.3.298Search in Google Scholar PubMed
17. Bnouham M, Ziyyat A, Mekhfi H, Tahri A, Legssyer A. Medicinal plants with potential antidiabetic activity – a review of ten years of herbal medicine research (1990–2000). Int J Diab Metabol 2006;14:1–25.10.1159/000497588Search in Google Scholar
18. Samane S, Christon R, Dombrowski L, Turcotte S, Charrouf Z, Lavigne C et al. Fish oil and argan oil intake differently modulate insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a rat model of dietary-induced obesity. Metabolism 2009;58:909–19.10.1016/j.metabol.2009.02.013Search in Google Scholar PubMed
19. Bnouham M, Bellahcen S, Benalla W, Legssyer A, Ziyyat A, Mekhfi H. Antidiabetic activity assessment of Argania spinosa Oil. J Compl Integr Med 2008;5:Article 32.10.2202/1553-3840.1180Search in Google Scholar
20. Bellahcen S, Mekhfi H, Ziyyat A, Legssyer A, Hakkou A, Aziz M et al. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil. Phytother Res 2012;26:180–5.10.1002/ptr.3524Search in Google Scholar PubMed
21. Liatis S, Tsapogas P, Chala E, Dimosthenopoulos C, Kyriakopoulos K, Kapantais E et al. The consumption of bread enriched with betaglucan reduces LDL-cholesterol and improves insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2009;35:115–20.10.1016/j.diabet.2008.09.004Search in Google Scholar PubMed
22. Bagri P, Ali M, Aeri V, Bhowmik M, Sultana S. Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47:50–4.10.1016/j.fct.2008.09.058Search in Google Scholar PubMed
23. Dewanjee S, Das AK, Sahu R, Gangopadhyay M. activity of Diospyros peregrina fruit: effect on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and augmented oxidative stress in experimental type 2 diabetes. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47:2679–85.10.1016/j.fct.2009.07.038Search in Google Scholar PubMed
24. Sebbagh N, Cruciani-Guglielmacci C, Ouali F, Berthault MF, Rouch C, Sari DC, et al. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes Metab 2009;35:178–84.10.1016/j.diabet.2008.10.005Search in Google Scholar PubMed
26. Khallouki F, Younos C, Soulimani R, Oster T, Charrouf Z, Spiegelhalder B, et al. Consumption of argan oil (Morocco) with its unique profile of fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic compounds should confer valuable cancer chemopreventive effects. Eur J Cancer Prev 2003;12:67–75.10.1097/00008469-200302000-00011Search in Google Scholar PubMed
27. Ohnishi M, Matuo T, Tsuno T, Hosoda A, Nomura E, Taniguchi H, et al. Antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effect of ferulic acid in STZ-induced diabetic mice and KK-Ay mice. Biofactors 2004;21:315–19.10.1002/biof.552210161Search in Google Scholar PubMed
28. Niskanen L, Hedner T, Hansson L, Lanke J, Niklason A. CAPPP Study Group: reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive diabetic patients on first-line therapy with an ACE inhibitor compared with a diuretic/beta-blocker-based treatment regimen: a subanalysis of the Captopril Prevention Project. Diabetes Care 2001;24:2091–6.10.2337/diacare.24.12.2091Search in Google Scholar PubMed
29. Costa VA, Vianna LM. Effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on blood pressure and lipidic profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin Chim Acta 2005;351:101–04.10.1016/j.cccn.2004.08.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed
30. Ould Mohamedou MM, Zouirech K, El Messal M, El Kebbaj MS, Chraibi A, Adlouni A. Argan oil exerts an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids and susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients. Int J Endocrinol 2011:747835. DOI:10.1155/2011/747835. Epub 2011 Nov 1.10.1155/2011/747835Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
31. Kumar KV, Das UN. Effect of cis-unsaturated fatty acids, prostaglandins, and free radicals on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in vitro. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1997;214:374–9.10.3181/00379727-214-44106Search in Google Scholar PubMed
32. Djoussé L, Arnett DK, Pankow JS, Hopkins PN, Province MA, Ellison RC. Dietary linolenic acid is associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension in the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Hypertension 2005;45:368–73.10.1161/01.HYP.0000154679.41568.e6Search in Google Scholar PubMed
33. Pingali P. Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems: implications for research and policy. Food Policy 2006;32:281–98.10.1016/j.foodpol.2006.08.001Search in Google Scholar
34. Merat S, Casanada F, Sutphin M, Palinski W, Reaven PD. Western-type diets induce insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in LDL receptor-deficient mice but do not increase aortic atherosclerosis compared with normoinsulinemic mice in which similar plasma cholesterol levels are achieved by a fructose-rich diet. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1223–30.10.1161/01.ATV.19.5.1223Search in Google Scholar
35. Dubois V, Breton S, Linder M, Fanni J, Parmentier M. Fatty acid profiles of 80 vegetable oils with regard to their nutritional potential. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2007;109:710–32.10.1002/ejlt.200700040Search in Google Scholar
©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin / Boston