Background: Diabetes mellitus arises from a deficient production and action of insulin. Ziziphus vulgaris L. (jujube) is a medicinal plant that is known to have anti-diabetic actions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of jujube fruit powder and extract against biochemical imbalances in stereptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes.
Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats using intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight (bw). Jujube powder (1 g/kg bw) and extract (1 g/kg bw) were administered daily via gavage, from two weeks prior to three weeks after STZ injection. Serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and lipids and histological changes of the pancreas tissue were assessed at the end of study.
Results: The kaempferol content of jujube extract was found to be 0.013±0.0005% (w/w). Two weeks of supplementation with jujube powder resulted in a significant reduction of serum glucose levels compared with the non-diabetic control group prior to STZ treatment. Both jujube preparations prevented serum insulin decrease following STZ treatment, increased antioxidant capacity, and reduced total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and malondialdehyde levels. Jujube powder reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein concentrations while jujube extract had no effect on these parameters. Histopathological examination revealed a significant attenuation of pancreatic inflammation in the jujube-treated animals.
Conclusions: The present findings suggest a protective role of jujube supplementation, in particular in the powdered form, against diabetes-induced biochemical and histopathological abnormalities.
This study was financially supported by the Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.
Conflict of interest statement
Authors’ conflict of interest disclosure: The authors stated that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article. Research funding played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
1. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care2013;36. Search in Google Scholar
2. AkhileshK, BhoyarPK, BahetiJR, BiyaniDM, KhaliqueM, KothmireMS, et al. Herbal antidiabetics: a review. Int J Res Pharm Sci2011;2:30–7. Search in Google Scholar
3. KumarR, Narayan KesariA, WatalG, MurthyPS, ChandraR, MaithalK, et al. Hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Annona squamosa (L.) Inexperimental animal. Curr Sci2005;88:1244–54. Search in Google Scholar
4. SanS, Nurhan YildirimA, PolatM, YildirimF. Mineralcomposition of leaves and fruits of some promising jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Miller) genotypes. Asian J Chem2009;21:2898–902. Search in Google Scholar
5. MukhtarHM, AnsariSH, AliM, AliM, NavedT. New compounds from Zizyphus vulgaris. J Pharm Biol2004;42:508–11. Search in Google Scholar
6. AliNA, JulichWD, KusnickC, LindequistU. Screening ofYemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxicactivities. J Ethnopharmacol2001;74:173–9. Search in Google Scholar
7. KaltW, ForneyCF, MartinA, PriorRL. Antioxidant activity,vitamin C, phenolics, and anthocyanins after fresh storage of small fruits. J Agric Food Chem1990;47:4638–44. Search in Google Scholar
8. TaiFF. Traditional Chinese medicine approach. J Perinatol2001;21:98–100. Search in Google Scholar
9. Abdel-ZaherAO, SalimSY, AssafMH, et al. Antidiabetic activity and toxicity of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves. J Ethnopharmacol2005;101:129–38. Search in Google Scholar
10. ZhaoJ, LiSP, YangFQ, LiP, WangYT. Simultaneousdetermination of saponins and fatty acids in Ziziphus jujube (Suanzaoren) by high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection and pressurized liquid extraction. J Chromatogr A2006;1108:188–94. Search in Google Scholar
11. LiJW, DingSD, DingXL. Comparison of antioxidant capacities of extracts from five cultivars of Chinese jujube. Process Biochem2005;40:3607–13. Search in Google Scholar
12. EuE. Animals models for studying diabetes mellitus. Agric Biol J North Am2010;1:130–4. Search in Google Scholar
13. MishraGJ, ReddyMN, RanaJS. Isolation of flavonoid constituent from Launaea procumbens Roxb by preparative HPTLC method. J Pharm Pharmacol2012;2:5–11. Search in Google Scholar
14. SolatiJ, SoleimaniN. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Ziziphus vulgaris L. onreptozocin-induced diabetic adult male Wistar rats. Acta Diabetol2010;47:219–23. Search in Google Scholar
15. KumarV, AnwarF, AhmedD, VermaA, AhmedA, DamanhouriZ, MishraV, et al. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity. Complement Altern Med2014;14:76. Search in Google Scholar
16. OhkawaH, OhishiN, YagiK. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem1997;95:351–8. Search in Google Scholar
17. AsgaryS, NaderiGA, Sarraf-ZadeganN, VakiliR. The inhibitory effects of pure flavonoids on in vitro protein glycosylation. J Herbal Pharmacother2002;2:47–55. Search in Google Scholar
18. NagappaAN, ThakurdesaiPA, VenkatRaoN, SinghJ.Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn. fruits. J Ethnopharmacol2003;88:45–50. Search in Google Scholar
19. NiamatR, KhanMA, KhanKY, AhmedM, MazariP, AliB, et al. A review on Zizyphus as antidiabetic. J Appl Pharm Sci2012;2:177–9. Search in Google Scholar
20. RahimiP, KabiriN, AsgaryS, SetorkiM. Anti-diabetic effects of walnut oil on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Pharmacol2011;5:2655–61. Search in Google Scholar
21. HaYL, StorksonJ, ParizaMW. Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene induced mouse for stomach neoplasia by conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid. Cancer Res1990;50:1097. Search in Google Scholar
22. LecumberriE, GoyaL, MateosR, AliaM, RamosS, Izquierdo-PulidoM, et al. A diet rich in dietary fiber from cocoa improves lipid profile and reduces malondialdehyde in hypercholesterolemic rats. Nutrition2007;23:332–41. Search in Google Scholar
23. XueM, ZhangL, WangQ, ZhangJ, BaiF. Novel yeastspecies from jujube fruit. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol2006;56:2245–7. Search in Google Scholar
24. Lean MeanM, NorroziM, KellyL, BurrnsJ, TalwarD, SatterN, et al. Dietary flavanoids protect against oxidant damage to DNA. Diabetes1990;48:176–81. Search in Google Scholar
25. KaoPC, ShieshSC, WuTJ. Serum C-reactive protein as amarker for wellness assessment. Ann Clin Lab Sci2006;36:163–9. Search in Google Scholar
26. TaoZ, GuangwenS, ZhanzhanY, ShashaM, YinZ, ZhinanM. Antidiabetic effect of total saponins from Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. In type 2 diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol2012;139:814–21. Search in Google Scholar
27. HallikainenM, KolehmainenM, SchwabU, LaaksonenDE, NiskanenL, RauramaaR, et al. Serum adipokines are associated with cholesterol metabolism in the metabolic syndrome. Clin Chim Acta2007;383:126–32. Search in Google Scholar
28. VessalM, ZalF, VaseiM. Effects of teucriumpolium on oral glucose tolerance test, regeneration of pancreatic islets and activity of hepatic glycokinase in diabetic rats. Arch Iranian Med2003;6:35–9. Search in Google Scholar
29. ZhangD, HamauzuY. Phenolic compounds and their antioxidant properties in different tissue of carrots (Daucuscarota). J Food Agric Environ2004;2:95–100. Search in Google Scholar
30. DandeP, TalekarVS, ChakraborthyGS. Evaluation of crude saponins extract from leaves of Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. for topical anti-inflammatory activity. Int J Res Pharmacol Sci2010;1:296–9. Search in Google Scholar
©2014 by De Gruyter