Skip to content
Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 10, 2015

The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on glycemic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes

Farzad Shidfar, Asadollah Rajab, Tayebeh Rahideh, Nafiseh Khandouzi, Sharieh Hosseini and Shahrzad Shidfar


Background: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the functional foods which contains biological compounds including gingerol, shogaol, paradol and zingerone. Ginger has been proposed to have anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, hypolipidemic and analgesic properties. Here, we report the effect of ginger supplementation on glycemic indices in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 20–60 -year-old patients with type 2 diabetes who did not receive insulin. Participants in the intervention and control groups were received 3 g of powdered ginger or placebo (lactose) (in capsules) daily for 3 months. Glycemic indices, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum paraoxonase, dietary intake and physical activity were measured at the beginning and end of the study, and after 12 h fasting.

Results: Comparison of the indices after 3 months showed that the differences between the ginger and placebo groups were statistically significant as follows: serum glucose (–19.41±18.83 vs. 1.63±4.28 mg/dL, p<0.001), HbA1c percentage (–0.77±0.88 vs. 0.02±0.16 %, p<0.001), insulin (–1.46±1.7 vs. 0.09±0.34 μIU/mL, p<0.001), insulin resistance (–16.38±19.2 vs. 0.68±2.7, p<0.001), high-sensitive CRP (–2.78±4.07 vs. 0.2±0.77 mg/L, p<0.001), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) (22.04±24.53 vs. 1.71±2.72 U/L, p<0.006), TAC (0.78±0.71 vs. –0.04±0.29 µIU/mL, p<0.01) and MDA (–0.85±1.08 vs. 0.06±0.08 µmol/L, p<0.001) were significantly different.

Conclusions: This report shows that the 3 months supplementation of ginger improved glycemic indices, TAC and PON-1 activity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Author contributions

All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding

None declared.

Employment or leadership

None declared.


None declared.

Competing interests

The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


1. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care2013;36:S6774.Search in Google Scholar

2. International Diabetes Federation.IDF guideline for management of post meal glucose in diabetes 2011. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation,2011.Search in Google Scholar

3. WhitingDR, GuariguataL, WeilC, ShawJ. IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract2011;94:31121.Search in Google Scholar

4. WebbGP. An overview of dietary supplements and functional food in dietary supplements and functional foods. 1st ed. Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, 2006:135.Search in Google Scholar

5. LangnerE, GreifenbergS, GruenwaldJ. Ginger: history and use. Adv Ther1998;15:2544.Search in Google Scholar

6. McKennaDJ, JonesK, HughesK, HumphreyS. Ginger in botanical medicines, the desk reference for major herbal supplements. 2nd ed. New York, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press, 2002:41144.Search in Google Scholar

7. BhattacharjeeSK. Zingiber Adams (Boehm) Zingiberaceae. In: BhattachargeeSK, editor. Handbook of aromatic plants. India: Pointer Publisher, 2000:4734.Search in Google Scholar

8. AliBH, BlundenG, TaniraMO, Some PhytochemicalNA. Pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food Chem Toxicol2008;46:40920.Search in Google Scholar

9. ThomsonM, Al-QattanKK, Al-SawanSM, AlnaqeebMA, KhanI, AliM. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids2002;67:4758.Search in Google Scholar

10. BhandariU, KanojiaR, PillaiKK. Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol2005;97:22730.Search in Google Scholar

11. BliddalH, RosetzskyA, SchlichtingP, WeidnerMS, AndersenLA, IbfeltHH, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartilage2000;8:912.Search in Google Scholar

12. JafriSA, AbassS, QasimM. Hypoglycemic effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in alloxan induced diabetic rats (Rattus norvagicus). Pak Vet J2011;31:1602.Search in Google Scholar

13. SaraswatM, SuryanarayanaP, Paduru YadagirR, MadhoosudanAP, NagallaB, Geereddy BhanuprakashR. Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats. Mol Vision2010;16:152537.Search in Google Scholar

14. Priya RaniM, PadmakumariKP, SankarikuttyB, Lijo-CherianO, NishaVM, RaghuKG. Inhibitory potential of ginger extracts against enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes, inflammation and induced oxidative stress. Intl J Food Sci Nutr2011;62:10610.Search in Google Scholar

15. LiY, TranVH, DukeCC, RoufogalisBD. Preventive and protective properties of Zingiber officinale (ginger) in diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, and associated lipid and other metabolic disorders: a brief review. Evid Based Complement Altern Med2012, Article ID 516870:10.Search in Google Scholar

16. RamuduSK, KoriviM, KesireddyN, LeeLC, ChengIS, KuoCH, et al. Nephroprotective effects of a ginger extract on cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic complications in rats. Chin J Physiol2011;54:7986.Search in Google Scholar

17. Rice-EvansC, MillerN. Measurement of the antioxidant status of dietary constituents, low density lipoproteins and plasma. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids1997;57:499505.Search in Google Scholar

18. MatthewsDR, HoskerJP, RudenskiAS, NaylorBA, TreacherDF, TurnerRC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia1985;28:41219.Search in Google Scholar

19. SatohM, YamasakiY, NagakeY, KasaharaJ, HashimotoM, NakanishiN, et al. Oxidative stress is reduced by the long term use of vitamin E-coated dialysis filters. Kidney Int1950;2001:194350.Search in Google Scholar

20. GanKN, SmolenA, EckersonHW, La DuBN. Purification of human serum paraoxonase/arylsterase. Evidence for one esterase catalyzing both activities. Drug Metab Dispos1991;19:1006.Search in Google Scholar

21. NammiS, SreemantulaS, RoufogalisBD. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome on the development of metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol2009;104:36673.Search in Google Scholar

22. GoyalRK, KadnurSV. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale on goldthioglucose induced obesity. Fitoterapia2006;77:1603.Search in Google Scholar

23. BhandariU, KanojiaR, PillaiKK. Effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol2005;97:22730.Search in Google Scholar

24. ShirdelZ, MirbadalzadehR, MadaniH. Antiglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ginger in alloxan induced diabetic rats and compare it with the glibenclamide. Iran J Diabetes Lipid Disord2009;9:715. [in Persian].Search in Google Scholar

25. ZhangXF, TanBK. Effects of an ethanolic extract of Gynura procumbens on serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Singapore Med J2003;41:16.Search in Google Scholar

26. Mozaffari-KhosraviH, TalaeiB, JalaiBA, NajarzadehA, MozayanMR. The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med2014;22:916.Search in Google Scholar

27. ArablouT, AryaeianN, ValizadehM, SharifiF, HosseiniA, DjalaliM. The effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Food Sci Nutr2014;65:51520.Search in Google Scholar

28. LiY, TranVH, DukeCC, RoufogalisBD. Gingerols of Zingiber officinale enhance glucose uptake by increasing cell surface GLUT4 in cultured L6 myotubes. Plant Media2012;78:154955.Search in Google Scholar

29. SekiyaK, OhtaniA, KusanoS. Enhancement of insulin sensitivity in adipocyte by ginger. Biofactors2004;22:1536.Search in Google Scholar

30. IsaY, MiyakawaY, Yanagisawa MgotoT, KangMS, KawadaT, et al. 6-Shgoal and 6-gingerol, the pungent of ginger inhibit TNF-α mediated down regulation of adiponectin expression via different mechanism in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. Biochem Biophys Res Commun2008;373:42934.Search in Google Scholar

31. BordiaA, RadhikaB, SuryakanthamV. Effect of aswagandha, ginger and mulberry on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Plant Foods Human Nutr2003;58:17.Search in Google Scholar

32. JoladSD, LantzAM, GuanJC, ChenGI. Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production. Phytochemistry2004;65:193754.Search in Google Scholar

33. ShanmugamKR, MallikarjunaK, KesireddyN, SathyaveluR. Neuroprotective effect of ginger on antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol2011;49:8937.Search in Google Scholar

34. MahlujiS, OstadrahimiA, MobasseriM, EbrahimzadehV, PayabooI. Anti-inflammatory effects of Zingiber officinale in type 2 diabetic patients. Adv Pharmaceut Bull2013;3:2736.Search in Google Scholar

35. LebdaMA, TahaNM, KorshomMA, MandourA, El-MorshedyAM. Biochemical effect of ginger on some blood and liver parameters in male New Zealand rabiits. Online J Anim Feed Res2012;2:197202.Search in Google Scholar

36. Abdul HanifH, MuradNA, Wan NgahWZ, Mohd YusofYA. Effects of Zingiber officinale on superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione and malondialdehyde content in HepG2 cell line. Malays J Biochem Mol Biol2005;11:3641.Search in Google Scholar

37. ShidfarF, HeydariI, HajimiresmaielSJ, HosseiniS, ShidfarS, AmiriF. The effects of cranberry juice on serum glucose, apoB, apoA-I, Lp(a), and paraoxonase-1 activity in type 2 diabetic male patients. J Res Med Sci2012;17:35560.Search in Google Scholar

38. ConnellyPW, ZinmanB, MaguireGF, MamakeesickM, HarrisSB, HegeleRA, et al. Association of the novel cardiovascular risk factors paraoxonase 1 and cystatin C in type 2 diabetes. J Lipid Res2009;50:121622.Search in Google Scholar

39. ShidfarF, EhramphoshE, HeydariI, HaghighiL, HosseiniSH, ShidfarSH, et al. Effects of soy bean on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic postmenopausal women. Int J Food Sci Nutr2009;60:195205.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2014-4-18
Accepted: 2014-12-23
Published Online: 2015-2-10
Published in Print: 2015-6-1

©2015 by De Gruyter