Type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM] is one of the leading causes for mortality. This study examined the role of an self-awareness based guided meditation practice, Cyclic Meditation [CM] on perceived stress, anxiety, depression, sleep and quality of life in T2DM patients.
A single arm pre-post design was used for the study.
The study was conducted in an auditorium for general public diagnosed with T2DM in Ernakulam, Kerala, India.
Subjects were 30 T2DM patients, both male and female of age 50.12 ± 11.15 years and BMI 25.14 ± 4.37 Kg/m2 and not having a history of hospitalisation were randomly recruited for the study following advertisements in national dailies.
Participants completed a supervised CM programs in the evenings, 5 days a week for 4 weeks, in addition to their regular medication.
Perceived stress, anxiety and depression were assessed with Perceived Stress Scale, State Anxiety Inventory and Beck’s depression inventory, respectively. Sleep and quality of life were assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and WHO-Quality of Life – BREF respectively.
Changes in the outcome measures from baseline to 4 weeks were compared using paired “t” test.
After 4 weeks, the quality of life and sleep scores increased 7.1% [p = 0.001] and 32.7% [p = 0.001], respectively. The perceived stress, anxiety and depression reduced 26.1% [p = 0.001], 16.01% [p = 0.003] and 37.63% [p = 0.006] as compared to their baseline reports. The CM practice also reduced daytime dysfunction.
A guided self-awareness based meditation program was safe and effective in improving depression, anxiety, perceived stress and enhance sleep and quality of life in T2DM patients, which could be helpful in reducing the future complications of T2DM. Mind management is essential along with medical management to achieve better clinical results.
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
 Cannizzo ES, Clement CC, Sahu R, Follo C, Santambrogio L. Oxidative stress, inflamm-aging and immunosenescence. J Proteomics. 2011;74:2313–23.10.1016/j.jprot.2011.06.005Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Duncan BB, Schmidt MI, Pankow JS, Ballantyne CM, Couper D, Vigo A, et al. Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of type 2 diabetes the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Diabetes. 2003;52:1799–805.10.2337/diabetes.52.7.1799Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Danesh J, Whincup P, Walker M, Lennon L, Thomson A, Appleby P, et al. Low grade inflammation and coronary heart disease: prospective study and updated meta-analyses. Br Med J. 2000;321:199–204.10.1136/bmj.321.7255.199Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
 Sela S, Shurtz-Swirski R, Cohen-Mazor M, Mazor R, Chezar J, Shapiro G, et al. Primed peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocyte: a culprit underlying chronic low-grade inflammation and systemic oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:2431–38.10.1681/ASN.2004110929Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Bastard JP, Maachi M, Lagathu C, Kim MJ, Caron M, Vidal H, et al. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2006;17:4–12.Search in Google Scholar
 Garcia MJ, McNamara PM, Gordon T, Kannell WB. Morbidity and mortality in diabetics in the Framingham population: sixteen year follow-up study. Diabetes. 1974;23:105–11.10.2337/diab.23.2.105Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Stratton IM, Amanda IA, Andrew WN, David RM, Susan EM, Carole AC, et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. Br Med J. 2000;321:405–12.10.1136/bmj.321.7258.405Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
 Chinmayanada S. Mandukya Upanishad. Bombay, India: Sachin Publishers; 1984.Search in Google Scholar
 Nagendra HR, Nagarathna R. New perspectives in stress management. Bangalore, India: Swami Vivekananda Yoga Prakashana; 1997.Search in Google Scholar
 Lutz A, Slagter HA, Dunne JD, Davidson RJ. Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends Cogn Sci. 2008;12:163–9.10.1016/j.tics.2008.01.005Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
 Telles S, Reddy SK, Nagendra HR. Oxygen consumption and respiration following two yoga relaxation techniques. Appl Psychophysiology Biofeedback. 2000;25:221–7.10.1023/A:1026454804927Search in Google Scholar
 Subramanya P, Telles S. Changes in midlatency auditory evoked potentials following two yoga-based relaxation techniques. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2009;40:190–5.10.1177/155005940904000312Search in Google Scholar PubMed
© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston