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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 19, 2018

Association between a guided meditation practice, sleep and psychological well-being in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

Mathew P Varghese, Ragavendrasamy Balakrishnan and Subramanya Pailoor



Type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM] is one of the leading causes for mortality. This study examined the role of an self-awareness based guided meditation practice, Cyclic Meditation [CM] on perceived stress, anxiety, depression, sleep and quality of life in T2DM patients.


A single arm pre-post design was used for the study.


The study was conducted in an auditorium for general public diagnosed with T2DM in Ernakulam, Kerala, India.


Subjects were 30 T2DM patients, both male and female of age 50.12 ± 11.15 years and BMI 25.14 ± 4.37 Kg/m2 and not having a history of hospitalisation were randomly recruited for the study following advertisements in national dailies.


Participants completed a supervised CM programs in the evenings, 5 days a week for 4 weeks, in addition to their regular medication.


Perceived stress, anxiety and depression were assessed with Perceived Stress Scale, State Anxiety Inventory and Beck’s depression inventory, respectively. Sleep and quality of life were assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and WHO-Quality of Life – BREF respectively.


Changes in the outcome measures from baseline to 4 weeks were compared using paired “t” test.


After 4 weeks, the quality of life and sleep scores increased 7.1% [p = 0.001] and 32.7% [p = 0.001], respectively. The perceived stress, anxiety and depression reduced 26.1% [p = 0.001], 16.01% [p = 0.003] and 37.63% [p = 0.006] as compared to their baseline reports. The CM practice also reduced daytime dysfunction.


A guided self-awareness based meditation program was safe and effective in improving depression, anxiety, perceived stress and enhance sleep and quality of life in T2DM patients, which could be helpful in reducing the future complications of T2DM. Mind management is essential along with medical management to achieve better clinical results.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2015-05-07
Accepted: 2018-05-11
Published Online: 2018-07-19

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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