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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 21, 2016

In vitro bactericidal activity of Berberis aristata extract against clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli

  • Pallavi Thakur , Raman Chawla EMAIL logo , Alka Narula , Rajeev Goel , Rajesh Arora and Rakesh Kumar Sharma


Background: Berberis aristata is known to contain a variety of phenolic compounds, flavonoids such as quercetin attributing towards its holistic capability of mitigating multidrug resistance.

Methods: B. aristata stem bark extract was prepared and characterized using phytochemical and bioactivity-based fingerprinting. Anti-oxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation profiling was also done in conjunction with in vitro anti-microbial efficacy testing against the test microorganism i. e., New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) Escherichia coli.

Results: Aquo-alcoholic (1:1) extract of B. aristata (PTRC-2111-A), containing 3.0±0.02 µg of QUERCETIN/mg of dried extract, exhibited [flavonoid/polyphenol: F/P (quercetin %) ~ 0.16(0.06 %)]. The bioactivity fingerprint profile of PTRC-2111-A included IC50 ratio [DPPH/NOS]=0.064 as functional standardized value having IC50 (DPPH Scavenging)=16±0.5 µg/mL and IC50 (Nitric Oxide Scavenging)=250±0.5 µg/mL respectively. The reducing ability and anti-lipid peroxidation equivalent (extract: standard) of PTRC-2111-A with respect to standard was estimated to be 3.44 (ascorbic acid) and 0.78 (quercetin) respectively. In vitro anti-microbial activity evaluated against sts-09 multidrug-resistant strain of carbapenem-resistant E. coli was found to be 25 µg/mL.

Conclusions: B. aristata was found to contain a number of phytoconstituents, which acts in a synergistic manner to provide significant bactericidal potential against carbapenem-resistant E. coli.


The authors are grateful to Director, INMAS, Delhi and Director, NCDC, New Delhi; Chairman, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab for provision of research facilities and support. The present study conducted under the ‘Samarthya’ Programme of DRDO is duly acknowledged (INM-311). Pallavi Thakur is grateful to CSIR for the award of fellowship.

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2015-8-18
Accepted: 2016-3-13
Published Online: 2016-4-21
Published in Print: 2016-9-1

©2016 by De Gruyter

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