Background: The leaves of Pergularia daemia Forsk (family Asclepidaceae) provide alternative plant-based treatments for the management of diabetes mellitus and diarrhoea in both humans and indigenous poultry species like the Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris). However, no scientific investigations to validate its usefulness in Ghana have been established. This study therefore sought to investigate the anti-hyperglycaemic activity of the 70 % ethanolic extract of P. daemia using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Sprague–Dawley rats. Additionally, the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extract were investigated.
Methods: The total phenolic content, total flavonoids content, radical scavenging activity and reducing power assays were estimated using Folin–Ciocalteu method, aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, Fe3+ reduction assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays, respectively.
Results: The results showed that P. daemia extract caused anti-hyperglycaemic activity in the STZ-induced rats at doses of 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg body weight with significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The phytosterols, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, tannins and triterpenes found in the extract may be responsible for the observed anti-hyperglycaemia and antioxidant activities. The extract also showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.
Conclusions: These findings justify the folkloric use of P. daemia as an anti-diabetic and antibacterial agents for susceptible species.
All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: The authors are grateful to the World Bank (through the West Africa Agricultural Productivity Programme Project) Phase II for partially funding the research, University of Ghana (Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine), CSIR-Animal Research Institute and Centre for Plant Medicine Research for supporting this study.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
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