Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 28, 2016

Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities of ethanolic extract of Pergularia daemia leaves: a possible substitute in diabetic management

  • Joseph Adusei Sarkodie EMAIL logo , Sylvia Afriyie Squire , Emelia Oppong Bekoe , Charles Yaw Fosu Domozoro , Irene Awo Kretchy , Mariesta Kurukulasuriya Jayaroshini Ahiagbe , Samuel Frimpong-Manso , Nana Akua Oboba Kwakyi , Dominic Adotei Edoh , Maxwel Sakyiama , Vida Korkor Lamptey , Seigfried Affedzi-Obresi , John Lee Duncan , Philip Debrah , Benoit Banga N’guessa , Julius Isaac Asiedu-Gyekye and Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko


Background: The leaves of Pergularia daemia Forsk (family Asclepidaceae) provide alternative plant-based treatments for the management of diabetes mellitus and diarrhoea in both humans and indigenous poultry species like the Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris). However, no scientific investigations to validate its usefulness in Ghana have been established. This study therefore sought to investigate the anti-hyperglycaemic activity of the 70 % ethanolic extract of P. daemia using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Sprague–Dawley rats. Additionally, the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extract were investigated.

Methods: The total phenolic content, total flavonoids content, radical scavenging activity and reducing power assays were estimated using Folin–Ciocalteu method, aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, Fe3+ reduction assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays, respectively.

Results: The results showed that P. daemia extract caused anti-hyperglycaemic activity in the STZ-induced rats at doses of 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg body weight with significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The phytosterols, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, tannins and triterpenes found in the extract may be responsible for the observed anti-hyperglycaemia and antioxidant activities. The extract also showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.

Conclusions: These findings justify the folkloric use of P. daemia as an anti-diabetic and antibacterial agents for susceptible species.

Author contributions

All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: The authors are grateful to the World Bank (through the West Africa Agricultural Productivity Programme Project) Phase II for partially funding the research, University of Ghana (Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine), CSIR-Animal Research Institute and Centre for Plant Medicine Research for supporting this study.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


1. IDF. 2013. Diabetes facts [Online]. International Diabetes Federation.Search in Google Scholar

2. Sarkodie J, Fleischer T, Edoh D, Dickson R, Mensah M, Annan K, et al. Antihyperglycaemic activity of ethanolic extract of the stem of Adenia lobata Engl (Passifloraceae). Int J Pharma Sci Res 2013;4:1370–7.Search in Google Scholar

3. Modak M, Dixit P, Londhe J, Ghaskadbi S, Paul A, Devasagayam T. Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes. J. Clin Biochem Nutr 2007;3:163–73.10.3164/jcbn.40.163Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

4. Evans L, Goldfine I, Maddux B, Grodsky G. Are oxidative stress activated signaling pathways mediators of insulin resistance and cell dysfunction? Diabetes 2003;52:1–8.10.2337/diabetes.52.1.1Search in Google Scholar PubMed

5. Haskins K, Bradley B, Powers K, Fadok V, Flores S, Ling X, et al. Oxidative stress in type1 diabetes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003;1005:43–54.10.1196/annals.1288.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

6. Karthishwaran K, Mirunalini S. Therapeutic potential of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.): the Ayurvedic wonder. Int J Pharmacol 2010;6:836–43.10.3923/ijp.2010.836.843Search in Google Scholar

7. Schmeilzer G, Guirb-Fakim A. Medicinal plants 2, 2nd edn, CTA Publishing. 2013;2:198–202.Search in Google Scholar

8. Bhavin V, Ruchi DDS. Diuretic potential of whole plant extracts of Pergularia daemia (Forsk). Iran J Pharm Res 2011;4:795–8.Search in Google Scholar

9. Larbie C, Torkornoo D, Dadson J. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic effect of botanicals: a review of medicinal weeds on KNUST campus, Kumasi. J Appl Pharm Sci 2014;10:97–104.10.7324/JAPS.2014.401018Search in Google Scholar

10. Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy, 13th ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1989:176–80.Search in Google Scholar

11. Govindarajan RS, Vijayakumar M, Shirwaikar A, Rawat AK, Mehrotra S, Pushpangadan P. Studies on the antioxidant activities of Desmodium gangeticum. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26:1424–7.10.1248/bpb.26.1424Search in Google Scholar PubMed

12. Oyaizu M. Studies of products of browning reaction: Antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr 1986;44:307–15.10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.44.307Search in Google Scholar

13. Singleton VL, Slinkard K. Total phenol analyses: automation and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Viticul 1977;28:49–55.Search in Google Scholar

14. National Institute of Health Guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals – Institute of Laboratory Animal Research – National Research Council. Department of Health Services Publication, Washington DC: National Academic Press, 1985:85.Search in Google Scholar

15. Klip A, Leiter LA. Cellular mechanism of action of metformin. Diab Care 1990;13:696–704.10.2337/diacare.13.6.696Search in Google Scholar PubMed

16. Alexandra ML, Bochev PG, Markova VI, Bechey BG, Popova MA, Danovska MP, Simeonova VK. Oxidative stress in chronic phase after stroke. Redox 2003;8:169–76.10.1179/135100003225001548Search in Google Scholar PubMed

17. Hsu B, Coupar IM, Oupar IM, Ken NG. Antioxidant activity of hot water extract from the fruit of the Doum palm, Hyphaene thebaica. Food Chem 2006;98:317–28.10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.077Search in Google Scholar

18. Guerra B, Junker E, Schroeter A, Malorny B, Lehmann S, Helmuth R. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in German Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, swine and poultry. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;3:489–92.10.1093/jac/dkg362Search in Google Scholar PubMed

19. Cos P, Vlietinck A, Berghe DV, Maes L. Anti-infective potential of natural products: how to develop a stronger in vitro ‘proof-of concept’. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;106:290–302.10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

20. Augusti K, Cherian S. Insulin sparing action of leucopelargonidin derivative isolated from Ficus bengalesis Linn. Indian JCell Biochem Exp Biol 2008;33:608–11.Search in Google Scholar

21. Rupasingbe H, Jackson C, Poysa V, Berado CD, Bewley J, Jenkinson J. Soyasapogenol A and B distribution in Soybean (Glycine Max L. Merr) in relation to seed physiology, genetic variability and growing location. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:5888–94.10.1021/jf0343736Search in Google Scholar PubMed

22. Cowan M. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12:564–82.10.1128/CMR.12.4.564Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Received: 2015-8-23
Accepted: 2016-5-8
Published Online: 2016-6-28
Published in Print: 2016-9-1

©2016 by De Gruyter

Downloaded on 23.3.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow