Background: Sterculia tragacantha (Sterculiaceae) is used in the treatment of boils, diarrhea, dyspepsia, fever, gonorrhea, snake bite, syphilis, and tapeworm in some West African nations. This study is to investigate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities since the plant is being used to treat fever.
Methods: Fresh leaves of the plant were collected and dried at room temperature and pulverized into powder form and 200 g of this powder was dissolved first in hexane for 72 h and the extract was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated while the substrate was further dissolved in chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol at different times and similar procedure adopted as for the hexane. The organic solvents were used based on order of increasing polarity. Graded concentrations of the solvent extracts were prepared and used for the study. Pilot toxicity test was carried out to determine safety dose using hematology and serum chemistry as indices of toxicity. Thereafter anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies were conducted using standard tests such as carrageenan, histamine-induced-edema, tail flick test and acetic writhing test. Phytochemical screening of the plant was also conducted.
Results: Phytochemical screening of the powdered material showed that alkaloid, flavonoid and reducing sugar were present while tannin, cardiac glycosides, saponins and anthraquinones were absent. Pilot toxicity test using aqueous extract at 100 mg/mL concentration showed that no mortality was recorded although the animals that received 3,000 mg/kg dose exhibited slight dullness after 48 h. No significant changes were also observed for the packed cell volume, hemoglobin, white blood cell counts, platelet counts, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, globulin except for the 200 and 3,000 mg/kg doses that caused significant increase in the level of total protein. The n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of S. tragacantha and indomethacin produced significant (p<0.05) inhibition of paw edema compared with the control using histamine and carrageenan methods of paw edema induction. There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in writhing movements at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of S. tragacantha and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) when compared to the control. This effect using tail flick test was not as effective when compared to the writhing test.
Conclusions: The different leaf extracts of S. tragacantha exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and they are also safe for medicinal use.
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
1. Lai PK, Roy J. Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices. Current Med Chem 2004;11(11):1451–60.10.2174/0929867043365107Search in Google Scholar PubMed
2. Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L. Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future. Med J Aust 2006;185(4 Suppl):S4–24.10.5694/j.1326-5377.2006.tb00548.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
3. Poonamand K, Singh GS. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Taungya community in Terai Arc Landscape, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;123(1):167–76.10.1016/j.jep.2009.02.037Search in Google Scholar PubMed
4. Kumar MS, Ankit S, Gautam DNS, Kumar SA. Biodiversity and indigenous uses of medicinal plant in the Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandauli District, Uttar Pradesh. Intl J Biodiversity 2015;Article ID 394307, 11 pages. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/394307.http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/394307Search in Google Scholar
5. DaSilva EJ, Baydoun E, Badran A. Biotechnology and the developing world. Electron J Biotech 2002;5(1):64–92.10.2225/vol5-issue1-fulltext-1Search in Google Scholar
6. Dennis F, Odamtten GT, Agbovie T, Amponsah K, Crentsil OR. Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in Ghana. Afr J Infect Dis 2002;38:215.Search in Google Scholar
7. Orisakeye OT, Olugbade TA. Epicatechin and procyanidin B2 in the stem and root bark of Sterculia tragacantha Lindl (Sterculiaceae). Med Chem 2014;4:334–7.10.4172/2161-0444.1000161Search in Google Scholar
8. Coles M. Study of medicinal plants in Gloucester village. PhD Thesis, Department of Botany, University of Sierra Leone (Unpublished), 1981.Search in Google Scholar
9. Dalziel JM. The useful plants of West Africa, 217. London: Crown Agents for overseas Government and Administration, 1956.Search in Google Scholar
10. Lans C. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2007;3:3.10.1186/1746-4269-3-3Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
11. Orisakeye OT, Olugbade TA. Studies on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of the plant Sterculia tragacantha Lindl. Middle-East J Sci Res 2012;11:924–7.Search in Google Scholar
12. Gaydou ME, Ramanoelina AR, Rasoarahona JR, Combres A. Fatty acid composition of Sterculia seeds and oils from Madagascar. J Agric Food Chem 1993;41:64–6.10.1021/jf00025a014Search in Google Scholar
13. Sawadogo WR, Boly R, Lompo M, Some N, Lamien CE, Guissou IP. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Dicliptera verticillata. Int J Pharmacol 2006;2(4):435–8.10.3923/ijp.2006.435.438Search in Google Scholar
14. Moody JO, Robert VA, Connolly JD, Houghton PJ. Anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extracts and an isolated furanoditerpene constituent of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre (Menispermaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104(1–2):87–91.10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.051Search in Google Scholar PubMed
15. Shale TL, Stirk WA, Van Staden J. Screening of medicinal plants used in Lesotho for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:347–54.10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00035-5Search in Google Scholar
16. Dean SW. Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals used in regulatory toxicology studies. Lab Anim 1999;33:309–27.10.1258/002367799780487823Search in Google Scholar
17. Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Kumar RS, Gomathi P, Rajeshwar Y, Kakoti BB. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract from Bauhinia racemosa stem bark in animal models. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;98(3):267–73.10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.018Search in Google Scholar
18. Perianayagam JB, Sharma SK, Pillai KK. Anti-inflammatory activity of Trichodesma indicum root extract in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104(3):410–14.10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.077Search in Google Scholar
19. Asongalem EA, Foyet HS, Ekoo S, Dimo T, Kamtchouing P. Anti-inflammatory, lack of central analgesic and antipyretic properties of Acanthus montamus (Ness) T. Anderson. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95:63–8.10.1016/j.jep.2004.06.014Search in Google Scholar
20. Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. The flavonoids: new perspectives in biological activities and therapeutics. Chim Oggi 1993;11:25–8.Search in Google Scholar
21. Abatan MO. The toxic effects of six commonly occurring plants in Nigeria pastures. PhD Thesis University of Ibadan (Unpublished). 1992.Search in Google Scholar
22. Trease GE, Evans WC. Phenols and phenolic glycosides in: trease and evans pharmacognosy, 13th ed. London: Biliere Tindall, 1996:832–3.Search in Google Scholar
23. Schalm OW, Jaivi NC, Caroll EJ, Haematology V. Veterinary haematology, 3rd ed. London: Lea and Febiger, 1975:385–390.Search in Google Scholar
24. Ajibade TO, Olayemi FO, Arowolo RO. The haematological and biochemical effects of methanol extract of the seeds of Moringa oleifera in rats. J Med Plants Res 2012;6(4):615–21.10.5897/JMPR11.1258Search in Google Scholar
25. Rej R. Aminotransferase in disease. Clin Lab Med 1989;9(4):667–87.10.1016/S0272-2712(18)30598-5Search in Google Scholar
26. Bush BM, Interpretation of laboratory results for small animal clinicians. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1991:25–34.Search in Google Scholar
27. Adedapo AA, Sofidiya MO, Masika PJ, Afolayan AJ. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous extract of Acacia karroo stem bark in experimental animals. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;103(5):397–400.10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00317.xSearch in Google Scholar
28. Linardi A, Costa SKP, DeSilva GR, Antunes E. Involvement of kinnis mast cells and sensory neurons in the plasma exudation and paw edema induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin B in the mouse. Eur J Pharmacol 2002;399:235–42.10.1016/S0014-2999(00)00375-7Search in Google Scholar
29. Mossai JS, Rafatullah S, Am G, Al-Yalya MA. Pharmacological studies of Rhun retinorrhea. Int J Pharmacol 1995;33:242–6.Search in Google Scholar
30. Udegbunam RI, Asuzu UI, Kene ROC, Udegbunam SO, Nwaehujor C. Anti-nociceptive anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the methanol leaf extract of Sterculia tragacantha Lindl. J Pharmacol Toxicol 2011;6:516–24.10.3923/jpt.2011.516.524Search in Google Scholar
31. Iwu MM. Handbook of African medicinal plants. Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1993:309–30.Search in Google Scholar
32. Bentley GA, Newton SH, Starr J. Studies on the antinociceptive action of α agonist drugs and their interaction with opioid mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol 1983;79:125–34.10.1111/j.1476-5381.1983.tb10504.xSearch in Google Scholar
33. Choi EM, Hwang JK. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare. Fitoterapia 2004;75:557–65.10.1016/j.fitote.2004.05.005Search in Google Scholar
34. Vasudevan M, Gunman KK, Parle M. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Thespesia populnea bark extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109:264–70.10.1016/j.jep.2006.07.025Search in Google Scholar
35. Ghannadi A, Hajhashemi V, Jafarabadi H. An investigation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seed polyphenols. J Med Food 2005;8:488–93.10.1089/jmf.2005.8.488Search in Google Scholar
36. Ahmad MM, Quresh S, Shah A, Qazi NS, Rao RM, Albakiri M. Anti-inflammatory activity of Caralluma tuberculata alcoholic extract. Fitorepia 1983;46:357–60.Search in Google Scholar
37. Sabu MC, Kuttan S. Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:155–60.10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00034-XSearch in Google Scholar
38. Silva GN, Martins FR, Matheus ME. Investigation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Lantara trifolia. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;100:254–9.10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.040Search in Google Scholar
39. Dhara AK, Suba V, Sen T, Pal S, Chaudhuri AKN. Preliminary studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the methanol fraction of the root extract of Tragia involucrata Linn. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:265–8.10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00166-5Search in Google Scholar
©2016 by De Gruyter