Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. is an ethnomedicinal plant and its fruit has been traditionally used by Puliar tribes of Anamalai Hills, Tamil Nadu, India to treat various ailments. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, cytotoxic and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene downregulation activities of Z. oenoplia fruit (ZOF) were studied.
To explore bioactive compounds present in the ripened fruits, high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis were done. Free radical scavenging, hepatoprotective, inhibition of iNOS gene expression and cytotoxic activities of ethanol extract of fruit were also studied.
Total flavonoid content of ZOFwas estimated as 69 µg/mg catechin equivalent. HPTLC densitogram confirmed the presence of quercetin and GC–MS analysis showed a total of 16 compounds of 87.66 % with quinic acid as a major compound which accounted for 22.29 %. Free radical-scavenging activity of ethanolic fruit extract was ranged from 160.12 to 650.23 µg/mL. An amount of 1.5 µg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced severe inflammation in BALB/c mice liver, followed by treatment with ethanolic fruit extract of 100 µg concentration, exhibited significant hepatoprotection and reverse transcriptase polymerase (RT-PCR) analysis showed downregulation of iNOS gene expression in hepatocytes at transcriptional level. ZOF also showed significant cytotoxicity and propidium iodide staining confirmed the induction of apoptosis in cervical cancer cells (HeLa).
Findings of the present study prove that ZOF is a rich source of bioactive compounds with a wide range of pharmacological activities. Hence, consumption of this wild edible fruit will be a cost-effective and easily available natural nutritional source for health protection.
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: We thank our college management for financial support.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
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