Nymphaea lotus Linn (N. lotus) is a medicinal plant widely used in Cameroon popular medicine, to treat neuropsychiatric conditions, male sexual disorders or as food supplement. However, scientific data on the pharmacotoxic profile of this plant are not available. The safety of N. lotus was assessed in acute, neuro- and subchronic toxicity studies by following the OECD guidelines. Effectively, no data have been published until now in regard to its safety on the nervous system.
Aqueous extract of N. lotus at doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight (BW) was evaluated for nitrites contents and orally administered to rats daily for 28 days (5 male, 5 female per group). The control group received distilled water (10 mL/kg) and a satellite group was used to observe reversal effects. Neurotoxicity of the plant was determined using open field test for motor coordination, ataxia and gait analysis. Clinical signs and state of livelihood were recorded during the 24 h, then for 28 days of treatments. At the end of 28-day period, animals were anesthetized and decapitated. The whole brain was homogenized for neurobiochemical analysis. Blood samples were collected with or without anticoagulant for hematological examinations and serum analysis. Specimens of liver, kidney, testis, ovaries, and brain were fixed in 10 % formalin and processed for histopathological examinations.
Our findings indicate dose-dependent elevation of nitrites contents in the flowers aqueous extract of N. lotus. Acute toxicity study revealed no signs of toxicity neither at the dose 2,000 mg/kg nor at 5,000 mg/kg. Thus the LD50 value of aqueous extract of N. lotus flowers is superior to 5,000 mg/kg. The repeated administration of N. lotus during 28 days, induced no signs of neurobehavioral changes in male, but female rats exhibited dose-dependent response in the open field test, suggesting sex and dose-relative psychotropic effects of N. lotus. The evaluation of neurobiochemistry revealed consistent rise of brain cholesterol by 44.05 %; 158.10 % and 147.62 % respectively in male rats treated with the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg. In female rats, these levels were significantly increased (p<0.001) only at the dose of 600 mg/kg compared to control. This trend persisted after 14 days withdrawal. Brain potassium and calcium concentrations were increased in all rats compared to their respective control receiving distilled water, suggesting transmembrane current stabilizing properties of brain cells by our extract. Further, serum biochemical analysis demonstrated that 28-day administration of N. lotus flowers increased depending on the dose and sex, the levels of serum urea, proteins, creatinine and bilirubin and reduced γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. These results suggest liver alterations that are endowed by lower liver relative weight and histology damages observed in female rats treated with the dose of 600 mg/kg of our extract. We also observed a rise in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction and AI of male rats undergoing N. lotus treatment. In female rats, the latter remains unaltered, confirming the dose- and sex-dependent response of our extract. The levels of white blood cells (WBC) and granulocytes were higher in male irrespective to their control, revealing stimulatory properties of the male hematopoietic system. Such variations (sex- and dose-dependent) are without biological relevance for the majority of the biochemical parameters evaluated, indicating a wide margin of safety for the traditional use of N. lotus. The alkaloids, nitrites and phytosterols contained in N. lotus flowers extract may probably account for its neuroprotective, anti-oxidant, and immunoboosting properties.
N. lotus do not possesses neurotoxicity but is able to induce behavioral changes in rats. Therefore, the application of this plant as either drug or supplementary food should be carefully considered.
The authors are also grateful to French association PCD (Pathology Cytologie Développement) for providing histological reagents.
Author contributions: DDPD, KPM, BDC, DT and PK: were involved in design, interpretation, and analysis of the data. KPM, DDPD, MNYS, MMF, NMC and OAC: were involved in acquisition of data and writing the manuscript. All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
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